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2021, vol. 55, br. 2, str. 293-313
Konkurentnost zemalja u vremenu globalizacije i četvrte industrijske revolucije
Univerzitet u Prištini sa privremenim sedištem u Kosovskoj Mitrovici, Pravni fakultet

e-adresadusanka.jovovic@pr.ac.rs
Ključne reči: globalizacija; konkurentnost zemalja; Četvrta industrijska revolucija
Sažetak
Krajnje složena priroda konkurentskih procesa čini identifikaciju kategorije konkurentnosti zemalja često nepreciznom i komplikovanom za razumevanje. Ovo posebno dolazi do izražaja u vremenu globalizacije i afirmacije Četvrte industrijske revolucije, kao dva fenomena koji u značajnom stepenu oblikuju savremena dešavanja u svetu. Globalizacija i Četvrta industrijska revolucija su omogućile ekonomski prosperitet pojedinim zemljama, ali istovremeno su i uzrokovale sve izraženije razvojne nejednakosti u svetskim razmerama. Isti je zaključak i po pitanju dostignutog nivoa konkurentnosti zemalja, o čemu na ubedljiv način svedoče podaci Svetskog ekonomskog foruma iz 2019. godine o konkurentnosti zemalja, po kojima je najveći broj zemalja u svetu još uvek daleko od ciljane "granice" konkurentnosti.

Introduction

Competitiveness is one of the most frequent concepts in the modern economic theory. It is an extremely complex phenomenon that can be seen from completely different aspects. In the economic science there is no generally accepted conceptual interpretation of the phenomenon of competitiveness, even though its research is focused solely on the level of an enterprise and/or the level of industrial branches, individual regional units or on the level of national economies.

In the past few decades, expert and scholarly literature tends more often to speak of country competitiveness, i.e. national competitiveness. It is completely clear that improvement of national competitiveness involves growing competitiveness of domestic companies because only companies create new forms of competitive advantages, while the government can shape the business environment that suits business development to a larger or smaller extent (Soltes, Gavurova, 2015). Namely, the growth of the real gross domestic product of national economies is basically determined by the achieved level of productivity of their companies (Grauwe, 2010). It means that a successful economy may be created solely by highly-competitive companies through placing the produced goods in the domestic market and particularly in the international market (Vojtovič, 2016).

The subject of research in this paper is national competitiveness. The emphasis is put on the explanation of the essence and significance of this concept and especially on the quantification of country competitiveness in the era of globalization and the dominance of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. As a matter of fact, it is evident that globalization and the Fourth Industrial Revolution are phenomena that significantly shape contemporary developments in the world of business and beyond, including the phenomenon of national competitiveness.

In the conditions of globalization and the affirmation of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, national economies function in the atmosphere of turbulent changes not only in economic, but also in social sphere. Sustainable economic growth of economically prosperous countries is in its greatest part founded on the strategies of improving competitiveness with the achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in its foundations and manifesting itself in the forms of comprehensive application of increasingly powerful information and communication technologies and growing connection of digital production systems, technological processes, humans and robots (Bazić, 2017).

Starting from the defined subject, the following goals of the research have been determined:

  • closer theoretical explication of the category of national competitiveness, i.e. of country competitiveness;

  • indicating the complex character of country competitiveness, particularly in the era of globalization and dominance of the Fourth Industrial Revolution;

  • overview of ranking and Competitiveness Index 4.0 of the selected countries by using the methodology of the World Economic Forum.

According to the subject and goals of the research, the following three research questions have been posed:

  1. What countries may be considered as leaders according to the achieved level of competitiveness in the world?

  2. What are the positions of EU countries about the question of global country competitiveness in the EU?

  3. How much are the West Balkans countries lagging behind EU countries according to the criterion of the achieved level of competitiveness in the Fourth Industrial Revolution?

In order to find answers to the posed research questions, general methodological principles will be used, as adjusted to this specific research subject. More precisely, the descriptive model will be used to describe the competitiveness categories of the countries initiating the innovations of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The analysis method will be applied in considering the most important components of the national competitiveness concept. The synthesis method will be used in the procedure of unifying individual components of national competitiveness. The paper will also use the comparative method which is applied to the comparison of the countries representing world leaders and the countries of the EU and the Western Balkans.

Starting from the subject, goals, research questions and methodological principles, the paper composition, besides the introduction, conclusion and the list of references, is made up of three sections. The first section speaks about different approaches to the explanation of country competitiveness; the second considers country competitiveness in the light of the achievements and challenges of globalization and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, while the third section gives a review of the key factors and shows the positions of the selected countries in the list of global competitiveness 4.0 of 2019 World Economic Forum.

Different approaches to the explanation of country competitiveness

Despite the increasing interest of practicians and researchers in explaining the essence of the country competitiveness category, its generally accepted conceptual determination does not exist. That is mainly the consequence of the enormous number of determinants of national competitiveness, and partly due to different approaches to measuring national competitiveness (Gavurova, Vagasova, Kovac, 2016). Therefore, some researchers are right to point out that, after the classic economic theory, every direction of some importance in the development of economic thought had its own perception of the essence of the competitiveness phenomenon. In other words, the concept of competitiveness is the result of long history of scholarly considerations that has given rise to different understandings and different aspects of the content of this category (Dragičević, 2012, p. 13).

Economists Schwab and Sala-I-Martin (Schwab, Sala-I-Martin, 2012) define national competitiveness as "a set of institutions, policies and factors that determine the productivity level of a country". National competitiveness indicates the country's ability in free and equal market conditions to produce goods and services that meet strict requirements of the international market while simultaneously maintaining and increasing the real income of its inhabitants on a long-term basis (IMD, 2003).

In the opinion of a number of researchers, when considering national competitiveness one should not treat economy on the whole, but focus on individual branches and sectors of activity instead (Cho & Moon, 2000). In other words, competitiveness of a country speaks of its ability in certain fields to produce greater added values in comparison to the counterpart sectors of activity in other countries, as well as to show a greater ability to attract production factors in comparison to other sectors within the same country or in other countries (Toming, 2011).

Оgrean and Herciu (Оgrean & Herciu, 2014) emphasize that the improvement of competitiveness in globalization conditions has become the key goal of economic policies in many countries. Stéphane Garelli (Garelli, 2004) thinks that country competitiveness should be seen mainly as the capability of managing national resources and increasing the wellbeing of the population based on the increase in the efficiency of functioning of corporate and public sectors. This concept of competitiveness, apart from the analysis of productivity, also includes the accumulation of physical capital, increase in natural wealth, encouragement of new ways of thinking and the ability to approach the resolution of the problem of development and business operations in a holistic manner.

In the economic theory there are attitudes that difference should be made between quantitative and qualitative country competitiveness. A country capable of producing cheaper comparable products based on cheaper production factors and more superior technology has quantitative aspects of competitiveness. Qualitative country competitiveness depends on the use of new technologies, design, raising the product quality in the world market, thus ensuring the growth of social wellbeing of its population (Lenardić, 2003).

Taking into account the above-listed attitudes, it is possible to state that national competitiveness constitutes the ability of economy to realize long-term sustainable economic growth and to increase wellbeing of most inhabitants, and also to build the economic structure that is efficiently adjusted to the conditions of international exchange and global competition (Јоvović, 2017). Therefore, national competitiveness speaks of the ability of the observed country in free and equal market conditions to make products and provide services that meet the needs of the domestic and foreign markets, while simultaneously maintaining and increasing the real income of the population in the conditions of global competition. Economic development with competitiveness in its essence is not based only on the inherited comparative advantages, but also on the commercial valorization of knowledge in innovations, better developed infrastructure, broad application of new technologies, transfer of technological solutions and/or improvement of the national innovation capability (Cvetanović, Nedić & Despotović, 2019).

Based on the analysis of exceptionally rich literature dedicated to the exploration of the phenomenon of country competitiveness, it may be concluded that the approaches to the consideration of this category are extremely different. It is proved by the fact that a number of analysts decisively advocate the opinion that competitiveness has the features of the "natural law of modern market economy" (Kitson, Martin & Tyler, 2004), while, in contrast, quite a few researchers think that the determination of competitiveness may be almost in full identified conceptually with the category of productivity, and that is why it is not logical to speak of country competitiveness (Krugman, 1994; Ketels, 2006).

Each national economy needs to compare itself with other countries regarding a set of criteria that give a sufficiently completed picture of the country's ability to withstand international competition both in its own markets and in the global market. The growth of national economy competitiveness undoubtedly constitutes one of the central economic goals of all countries. Moreover, the importance of increasing gross domestic product per capita is emphasized, along with the ability to produce goods and services that meet the international market criteria (Maksimović, 2012).

Country competitiveness in the light of achievements and challenges of globalization and the Fourth Industrial Revolution

In the past thirty years or so, the globalization process has been one of the most typical phenomena in world economy and indisputably the most prominent characteristic in contemporary circumstances (Јоvović, 2007). There is almost total agreement that the term "globalization" denotes connecting human communities on planet Earth into a world society (Marković, 2010).

The Fourth Industrial Revolution takes into account the current period of time in the country's economic development that is marked by numerous innovative solutions, the application of which creates conditions for sustainable development and sustainable country competitiveness in the world market. The Fourth Industrial Revolution has become the reality to millions of people throughout the world. It opens up new opportunities for the development of business, governments and individuals.

There are two basic approaches economists take in treating globalization. The first approach is characterized by pointing to the benefits the developing countries have from free movement of goods, services, capital and technology, while the second approach emphasizes the negative sides of globalization, particularly having in mind numerous aspects of day-to-day more pronounced disbalances in the environment and increasing inequalities in the distribution of the world income and wealth (Baddeley, 2006).

The multidimensional nature of the globalization process is reflected in the enormous increase in international flows of goods, services and production factors, as well as in the movement of information, knowledge and technology (Kharlamova & Vertelieva, 2013). On one hand, this process accelerates the convergence of national economies while, on the other hand, it leads to increasing inter-state and internal opposition and growing competition between the subjects of international economic relations at regional, national and global levels.

Independently of the approach to the exploration of the globalization process, it is an indisputable fact that national competitiveness as one of the main consequences of this phenomenon (process) cannot be treated only within the observed country, but it assumes a supra-national character. More importantly, the explanation of national competitiveness no longer implies just addressing the country's economic growth and economic prosperity, but it demands paying attention to numerous "soft" factors of competitiveness, such as the quality of life, environmental protection, ecological safety of the existing and future technologies, increasing inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth etc (Balkyte & Tvaronavičiene, 2010; Cvetanović, Nedić & Despotović, 2019)

The effect of globalization on competitiveness of underdeveloped countries is rather unclear. On one hand, it opens up new opportunities for its improvement, while on the other hand it may act in a limiting way for the countries that have not conceived appropriate strategies of improving their own competitiveness in the world which is subject to continuously intensive changes.

Globalization has initiated the process of connecting and interdependence of different subjects from geographically rather distant parts of the world. It has shed completely different light on the matters of ecological, social and economic sustainability in by far the largest number of countries. It is becoming clearer that the improvement of national competitiveness in the globalization conditions does not depend only on the growth and economic efficiency, but also on the environment conservation and fair distribution, as much as it is possible, of the generated income and acquired wealth (Bilas, Bošnjak & Novak, 2018).

Sustainable economic development is a key to leaving poverty behind and it is the basic incentive of human development in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In economic history there are numerous indicators that growth was the most efficient, and probably the only way for people to win poverty and improve the quality of life. For the least developed and developing countries, economic growth is a necessary and crucial prerequisite for creating conditions for the improvement of education, health, nutrition and quality of life for the majority of population.

Automation and robotization may slow down the development of the country that relies on low labour costs in production. The broadest application of information-communication technologies reduces information barriers and enables faster transfer of ideas, technologies and non-material products globally, thus creating new opportunities for the developing economies.

Ranking and Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 according to the World Economic Forum methodology

Starting from the complexity and specific nature of competitiveness, a large number of indicators for measuring country competitiveness have been developed in the economic theory and used in practice (Dieter & Englert, 2007). Lately, composite indicators as tools for measuring macro-competitiveness are becoming increasingly significant. Composite indicators measure and simplify information for the purpose of more complete understanding of a phenomenon, both for decision-makers and the public. The application of composite indicators has proved to be useful, particularly in comparative studies of the countries. It is due to the fact that composite indices are able to present complex concepts (e.g. competitiveness, sustainability, sustainable competitiveness etc.) in the form of a simple measure. However, composite indices may also send wrong information if they are poorly constructed or misinterpreted (Cvetanović & Novaković, 2017).

There is no doubt that the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum is by far the most used composite indicator of country competitiveness. The Global Competitiveness Index is obtained on the basis of aggregating a large number of individual indicators which quantify special dimensions of competitiveness at national level. Its calculation implies the existence of a consistent theoretical basis of the competitiveness concept, the selection of individual indicators, as well as the purposeful use of the weight system and adequate aggregation procedures.

The World Economic Forum methodology for measuring country competitiveness was radically changed in 2018 by its adjustment to the challenges and achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2019). The index integrates well-established aspects with new levers which stimulate productivity and economic growth. It emphasizes the role of human capital, innovations, resilience and agility, not only as the incentive but also as the factor of economic success in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. It refers to the better use of technology in economic growth, but also warns that this is possible to achieve only as part of the holistic approach along with other competitiveness factors. Finally, it offers an objective data analysis for impartial and rational creation of a future-oriented policy.

The Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 is an annual indicator which enables economic policy makers to assess their progress in relation to a series of productivity-determining factors. It is obtained by merging the values of 103 individual indicators made through the combination of the data supplied by international organizations (most frequently national statistical organizations) and the data from the survey conducted by the World Economic Forum with the aim of supplementing data that cannot be obtained from official statistical sources. All indicators that also make up the Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 are organized in 12 "pillars": Institutions; Infrastructure; ICT adoption; Macroeconomic stability; Health; Skills; Product market; Labour market; Financial system; Market size; Business dynamism and Innovation capability (GCI_4.0_2019_Dataset).

The Index is now calculated identically for all economies and the definite GCI value is the simple average of 12 "pillars", so that the implicit weight of each pillar is about 8.3% (1/12). The values of the pillars of competitiveness and the indicators within the pillars are transformed on 0-100 scale, where 0 is the worst value while 100 is the maximum grade. The justification is that, as the Fourth Industrial Revolution continues, all competitiveness factors have approximately the same effect on the competitive position of economy, irrespective of the level of GDP per capita. Due to this fact, each "pillar" may be considered as a potential priority. GCI 4.0 quantifies the advancement of country competitiveness based on the achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, independently of the accomplished stage of their respective economic growth.

The results of the Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 in 2019 indicate that the largest number of the countries is significantly far from the "limit" of competitiveness as a conceived value of all competitiveness factors. The average grade 60 confirms that many economies in the world are supposed to implement the measures with the purpose of accelerating the long-term rate of economic growth and prevention of long-term imbalances, thus creating conditions for the improvement of the population's standard of life.

The results of the Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 in 2019 show that there are economies which have achieved respectable results in improving global competitiveness. The Report on global country competitiveness in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is designed in such a way as to help policy makers, business leaders and other stakeholders throughout the world to shape their growth and development strategies which are in compliance with the achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. At the same time, the Report on global country competitiveness in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution constitutes a special invitation to all economic agents to join the holistic and sufficiently fast process of building competitive economy that guarantees the improvement of the people's standard of life. Due to rapid technological changes, political polarization and slow economic recovery, it is key to define, assess and implement new directions of growth and prosperity trends. Together with productivity as the most important determinant of long-term economic growth and income increase, Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 emphasizes the significance of the main factors of productivity growth in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Seen in that light, GCI 4.0 may be rightfully said to constitute a very respectable tool for their assessment. Key findings, summed up into a new tool, as well as its results, were reached in the analysis at global, regional and national levels. The Global Competitiveness Index of the Fourth Industrial Revolution constitutes an unequivocally new concept, new standard and new approach in addressing the factors of global country competitiveness in relation to the previous global competitiveness index. By putting huge efforts in data collection, GCI 4.0 provides new findings about he factors whose importance is growing along with the development of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (human capital, innovations, resilience and agility). These key new concepts refer to the entrepreneurial culture, the companies accepting disruptive ideas, the cooperation of the companies with many stakeholders, the critical way of thinking, the merit promotion system, and trust.

According to the Report on global country competitiveness for 2019, Singapore had the highest level of competitiveness in the world, with the Global Competitiveness Index value of 84.8. It is followed by the United States of America with the GCI value of 83.7 and Hong Kong with 83.1. Apart from these countries, the top ten most competitive countries in the world in 2019 were: the Netherlands, Switzerland, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Great Britain and Denmark (Table 1).

Table 1. Twenty most competitive countries in the world according to the Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 in 2019
Табела 1. Двадесет најконкурентнијих земаља у свету према индексу глобалне конкурентности 4.0 у 2019. години

Ранг/
Ranking
Земља/
Country
Индекс/
Index
Ранг/
Ranking
Земља/
Country
Индекс/
Index
1. Сингапур/
Singapore
84,8 11. Финска/
Finland
80,2
2. САД/
USA
83,7 12. Тајван/
Taiwan
80,2
3. Хонг Конг/
Hong Kong
83,1 13. Јужна Кореја/
South Korea
79,6
4. Холандија/
Netherlands
82,4 14. Канада/
Can- ada
79,6
5. Швајцарска/
Switzerland
82,3 15. Француска/
France
78,8
6. Јапан/
Japan
82,3 16. Аустралија/
Australia
78,7
7. Немачка/
Germany
81,8 17. Норвешка/
Norway
78,1
8. Шведска/
Sweden
81,2 18. Луксембург/
Luxembourg
77,0
9. Велика Британија/
Great Britain
81,2 19. Нови Зеланд/
New Zealand
76,7
10. Данска/
Denmark
81,2 20. Израел/
Israel
76,7

Извoр/Source:World Economic Forum, GCI_4.0_2019_Dataset, преузето са/downloaded from: www3.weforum.org

Using the European continent as an example, it is possible to distinguish four groups of countries with different levels of competitiveness: (1) competitive countries of Northwest Europe as competitive leaders; (2) competitive countries of Southwest Europe, led by France; (3) countries of Northeast Europe, with rising competitiveness, including Poland, the Czech Republic and the Baltic states, and (4) countries of Southeast Europe, with the Balkan countries/EU members with low competitiveness (Table 2).

Table 2. Ranking and Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 of the European Union countries in 2019
Табела 2. Ранг и индекс глобалне конкурентности 4.0 земаља Европске уније у 2019. години

Ранг/
Ranking
Земље чланице ЕУ28/
EU28 member states
Индекс/
Index
Ранг/
Ranking
Земље чланице ЕУ28/
EU28 member states
Индекс/
Index
4. Холандија/
Netherlands
82,4 34. Португал/
Portugal
70,4
7. Немачка/
Germany
81,8 35. Словенија/
Slovenia
70,2
8. Шведска/
Sweden
81,2 37. Пољска/
Poland
68,9
10. Данска/
Denmark
81,2 38. Малта/
Malta
68,5
11. Финска/
Finland
80,2 39. Литванија/
Lithuania
68,4
15. Француска/
France
78,8 41. Летонија/
Latvia
67,0
18. Луксембург/
Luxembourg
77,0 42. Словачка/
Slovakia
66,8
21. Аустрија/
Austria
76,6 44. Кипар/
Cyprus
66,4
22. Белгија/
Belgium
76,4 47. Мађарска/
Hungary
65,1
23. Шпанија/
Spain
75,3 49. Бугарска/
Bulgaria
64,9
24. Ирска/
Ireland
75,1 51. Румунија/
Romania
64,4
30. Италија/
Italy
71,5 59. Грчка/
Greece
62,6
31. Естонија/
Estonia
70,9 63. Хрватска/
Croatia
61,9
32. Чешка/
Czech Republic
70,9

Извoр/Source: World Economic Forum, GCI_4.0_2019_Dataset, преузето са/downloaded from: www3.weforum.org

A question arises about the position of the Western Balkans countries in the light of their overall competitiveness. It is possible to find the answer through an insight into the data presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Ranking and Global Competitiveness Index 4.0 of the Western Balkans countries in 2019
Табела 3. Ранг и индекс глобалне конкурентности 4.0 земаља Западног Балкана у 2019. години

Ранг/
Ranking
Земље Западног Балкана/
Western Balkans countries
Индекс/
Index
Ранг/
Ranking
Земље Западног Балкана/
Western Balkans countries
Индекс/
Index
72 Србија/
Serbia
60,9 82 Северна Македонија/
North Macedonia
57,3
73 Црна Гора/
Montenegro
60,8 92 Босна и Херцеговина/
Bosnia and Herzegovina
54,7
81 Албанија/
Albania
57,6

Извoр/Source: World Economic Forum, GCI_4.0_2019_Dataset, преузето са/downloaded from: www3.weforum.org

It transpires that the countries of this region are rather uncompetitive. In 2019, among the Western Balkans countries, Serbia was the 72nd and Montenegro was the 73rd, while Albania (81st) and North Macedonia (82) had a much poorer ranking. Bosnia and Herzegovina was substantially behind other Western Balkans countries in 2019, with the ranking in the 92nd place.

Conclusion

Dynamic and sustainable economic development is a permanent goal all countries want to achieve because it is the only road towards general social progress. However, not all countries manage to realize economic development with competitiveness as its foundation. Globalization and the Fourth Industrial Revolution as the phenomena shaping contemporary developments in the world have created new opportunities, but also disruptions and an even wider gap between different economies and countries. There is a huge disparity in competitiveness between different countries, which should be removed to the greatest extent and in the shortest possible period in order to recover productivity and growth throughout the world.

The analysis of former approaches in interpreting the national competitiveness concept shows rather big differences in its scope. The basic reason for the existing large number of conceptual determinations of national competitiveness is complexity and multidimensional nature of the category. The national competitiveness concept reflects the favourable position of a national economy, mostly in the field of international trade, and simultaneously the country's ability to strengthen this position. On the other hand, national competitiveness is a concentrated expression of economic, scientific, technological, organizational, managerial, marketing and other skills which are implemented in the production of goods, successfully ensuring their competition with foreign goods and services in domestic and foreign markets. National competitiveness is the country's ability to realize high rates of economic growth, to ensure steadily increasing real earnings, and to improve its population's standard of life in the long run. At the same time, a high level of national competitiveness is in the function of promoting the role and importance of domestic companies in the world market. This ability to adjust to the changes occurring in the global market is based on economic factors such as the volume of investments, innovations etc.

It is an indisputable fact that the outcome of national competitiveness is company competitiveness, for the fundamental reason that country competitiveness can be increased solely by the growth of company competitiveness. Value is created at the company level, whereas competitiveness of a country is a reflection of the ability of its companies to be successfully included in international economic processes. In short, the improvement of the competitiveness of a country is based on the continuous growth in the competitiveness of its companies.

The increasingly pronounced process of world economy globalization, led by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, creates new opportunities for improving international competitiveness, as well as increasingly complex challenges and requirements, particularly in the field of strengthening and improving the innovation capability of the countries as one of the key factors of their sustainable competitiveness. The strengthening of innovation capability helps countries not only to accelerate the structural changes process and thus create conditions for dynamic economic growth, but also to improve national competitiveness as a basis for long-term sustainable development in the increasingly complex challenges of global business and competition.

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World Economic Forum. (2019). GCI_4.0_2019_Dataset. Retrieved from www3.weforum.org.
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Schwab, K. (2019) The Global Competitiveness Report 2019. Geneva: World Economic Forum
Schwab, K., Sala-I-martin, X. (2012) The Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. Geneva: World Economic Forum
Soltes, V., Gavurova, B. (2015) Modification of Performance Measurement System in the Intentions of Globalization Trends. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 11(2): 160-170
Toming, K. (2011) The impact of integration with the European Union on the international competitiveness of the food processing industry in Estonia. Estonia: Tartu University Press, doctoral dissertation
Vojtovič, S. (2016) The Impact of The Structural Funds on Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Journal of Competitiveness, 8(4): 30-45
World Economic Forum (2019) GCI_4.0_2019_Dataset. Available at: www3.weforum.org
 

O članku

jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/socpreg55-30935
primljen: 19.02.2021.
prihvaćen: 22.02.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 16.07.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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