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2021, vol. 58, br. 1, str. 14-22
Arheoentomološka procena nivoa zaraženosti žiškom (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) u zalihi graška na kasnobronzanodobnom, gradinskom naselju Hisar
aThe Museum of Vojvodina, Department of Archaeology, Novi Sad
bn/a

e-adresaaleksandar.medovic@muzejvojvodine.org.rs
Ključne reči: arheoentomologija; Bruchus pisorum L.; grašak; graškov žižak; Hisar; kasno bronzano doba; Leskovac
Sažetak
U jednoj zalihi ugljenisanog graška na lokalitetu Hisar kod Leskovca primećene su dve vrste semena: naizgled zdrava semena i semena oštećena ubušivanjem larvi, najverovatnije graškovog žiška. Najmanje dve petine svih nalaza su imale tipična oštećenja nastala ishranom larvi Bruchus pisorum L. Ovaj broj nije konačan jer se nakon svake naknadne analize broj formiranih "prozora" na zaraženim semenima povećao i postao vidljiv. Visok procenat zaraženih semena graška na Hisaru ukazuje na razvijenu proizvodnju graška na malim parcelama. Na kraju bronzanog doba, uzgoj graška je sigurno bio dobro ukorenjen u ratarskoj proizvodnji stanovnika ovog naselja. Prethodne DNK analize postavile su ovaj drevni grašak u poziciju između gajenog (Pisum sativum L.) i divljeg, ozimog P. sativum subsp. elatius (Steven ex M. Bieb.) Asch. et Graebn. Na osnovu pretpostavke o kasnom vremenu žetve ozimog graška i utvrđene faze životnog ciklusa graškovog žiška, bilo je moguće proceniti deo sezone tokom kojeg je došlo do procesa ugljenisanja. Na osnovu skoro formiranih "prozora", pretpostavljamo da su se larve sa Hisara nalazile u poodmakloj fazi razvoja, neposredno pred preobražaj u stadijum lutke. Svega nekoliko velikih izlaznih otvora odraslih žižaka je bilo uočeno. Proces ugljenisanja se stoga morao dogoditi u drugoj polovini jula, ili najkasnije tokom prvih dana avgusta. Ovaj rezultat predstavlja jedan od dosad najvećih nivoa infestacije mahunarki dokumentovanih u Starom svetu i najveći praistorijski nalaz infestiranosti graška. Nema dokaza o upotrebi prirodnih supstanci kao repelenata protiv graškovog žiška. Grašak uzgajan na Hisaru bio je sitnozrni. Na osnovu kombinacije morfoloških podataka i rezultata dobijenih eksperimentima, pretpostavljamo da je grašak imao veći sadržaj proteina i fosfora.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/ratpov58-31204
primljen: 08.03.2021.
prihvaćen: 17.04.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 29.04.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
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