• citations in SCIndeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[]
  • visits in previous 30 days:0
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:0


article: 4 from 13  
Back back to result list
2012, vol. 62, iss. 5-6, pp. 495-509
Immunoglobulin changes in boars exposed to administration of levamisole and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone
aCroatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia
bUniversity of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Zagreb, Croatia
The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of levamisole (LEV) on immunoglobulin concentration in the serum of boars exposed to 3-day stress induced by exogenous ACTH. Boars were assigned to 4 groups (n=7). The first group received LEV for 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW), the second group received ACTH (10 μg/kg BW) for 3 days and the third group received LEV for 3 consecutive days and ACTH for the following 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW; ACTH 10 μg/kg BW). The control group received saline solution during the 6 days. Concentrations of cortisol, total protein, globulin, albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM) were determined during treatments and on the 16th day post-administration. Cortisol concentration was increased in both ACTH treated groups during all three days of administration and the day after the last ACTH treatment (p<0.05). ACTH increased total protein levels during the stress period and over the next 16 days (p<0.05). However, in the LEV+ACTH group total protein levels were elevated only on day 1 and 2 of ACTH injection (p<0.05) and after the end of treatment on day 11 and 22 (p<0.05). LEV stimulated the increase of protein concentrations compared to control values after LEV treatment, on days 5, 14, 18 and 22 (p<0.05). Serum albumins were not affected by LEV or ACTH treatment. Globulin concentrations were increased throughout and on the 16th day after administration of ACTH in the ACTH and LEV+ACTH groups (p<0.05). Globulin concentrations did not differ between LEV and control groups of boars. ACTH treatment elevated serum IgG concentration during the stress period (p<0.05) and over the next 16 days (p<0.05). However, in the LEV+ACTH group of boars, IgG levels were elevated on days 1 and 3 after ACTH injection (p<0.05) and days 1 and 5 in the post-treatment period (p<0.05). LEV had no impact on IgG levels compared to the control boars. However, increased IgA concentrations in boars treated with LEV were determined on day 2 (p<0.05) and day 11 (p<0.05) after administration of LEV compared to animals in the LEV+ACTH group. These results show that LEV application may protect boars from the negative influence of stress and provoke improved non-specific immunity.
Antunović, Z., Senčić, Đ., Šperanda, M., Liker, B. (2002) Influence of the season and the reproductive status of ewes on blood parameters. Small Ruminant Research, 45(1): 39-44
Becker, B.A., Nienaber, J.A., Christenson, R.K., Manak, R.C., DeShazer, J.A., Hahn, G.L. (1985) Peripheral concentrations of cortisol as an indicator of stress in the pig. American journal of veterinary research, 46(5): 1034-8
Bilandzić, N., Simić, B., Zurić, M., Lojkić, M. (2005) Effect of ACTH administration on biochemical and immune measures in boars. Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine, 52(9): 440-6
Bilandzić, N., Zurić, M., Lojkić, M., Simić, B., Milić, D., Barac, I. (2006) Cortisol and immune measures in boars exposed to three-day administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone. Veterinary research communications, 30(4): 433-44
Blecha, F. (1988) Immunomodulation: A means of disease prevention in stressed livestock. Journal of animal science, 66(8): 2084-90
Bozic, F., Lackovic, G., Kovsca-Janjatovic, A., Smolec, O., Valpotic, I. (2006) Levamisole synergizes experimental F4ac+ Escherichia coli oral vaccine in stimulating ileal Peyer's patch T cells in weaned pigs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 29(3): 199-204
Božić, F., Mrljak, V. (2001) Levamisole modulates the numbers and phagocytic functions of leukocytes in weaned pigs vaccinated with non-enterotoxigenic F4ac+ Escherichia coli. Prax Vet, 49, 21- 30
Božić, F., Bilić, V., Valpotić, I. (2002) Modulation by levamisole of CD45RA and CD45RC isoforms expression in the gut of weaned pigs vaccinated against colibacillosis. J Vet Pharmacol Therap, 25, 69-72
Brown-Borg, H.M., Klemcke, H.G., Blecha, F. (1993) Lymphocyte proliferative responses in neonatal pigs with high or low plasma cortisol concentration after stress induced by restraint. American journal of veterinary research, 54(12): 2015-20
Brunner, C.J., Muscoplat, C.C. (1980) Immunomodulatory effects of levamisole. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 176(10 Spec No): 1159-62
Cuesta, A., Esteban, M.A., Meseguer, J. (2002) Levamisole is a potent enhancer of gilthead seabream natural cytotoxic activity. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 89(3-4): 169-74
Dantzer, R., Mormède, P. (1983) Stress in farm animals: A need for reevaluation. Journal of animal science, 57(1): 6-18
Davis, D.P., Williams, R.E. (1986) Influence of hog lice, Haematopinus suis, on blood components, behavior, weight gain and feed efficiency of pigs. Veterinary parasitology, 22(3-4): 307-14
de Groot, J., Ruis, M.A., Scholten, J.W., Koolhaas, J.M., Boersma, W.J. (2001) Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs. Physiol Behav, 73(1-2): 145-58
DeKruyff, R.H., Fang, Y., Umetsu, D.T. (1998) Corticosteroids enhance the capacity of macrophages to induce Th2 cytokine synthesis in CD4+ lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-12 production. Journal of immunology, 160(5): 2231-7
Flesh, J., Harel, W., Nelken, D. (1982) Immunopotentiating effect of levamisole in the prevention of bovine mastitis, fetal death and endometritis. Veterinary record, 111(3): 56-7
Griffin, F.J.T. (1989) Stress and immunity: A unifying concept. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 20(3): 263-312
Haussmann, M.F., Carroll, J.A., Weesner, G.D., Daniels, M.J., Matteri, R.L., Lay, D.C. (2000) Administration of ACTH to restrained, pregnant sows alters their pigs' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Journal of animal science, 78(9): 2399-411
Hessing, M.J., Scheepens, C.J., Schouten, W.G., Tielen, M.J., Wiepkema, P.R. (1994) Social rank and disease susceptibility in pigs. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 43(4): 373-87
Hessing, M.J., Coenen, G.J., Vaiman, M., Renard, C. (1995) Individual differences in cell-mediated and humoral immunity in pigs. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 45(1-2): 97-113
Hicks, T.A., Mcglone, J.J., Whisnant, C.S., Kattesh, H.G., Norman, R.L. (1998) Behavioral, endocrine, immune, and performance measures for pigs exposed to acute stress. J Anim Sci, 76(2): 474-83
Holcombe, R.F., Milovanovic, T., Stewart, R.M., Brodhag, T.M. (2001) Investigating the role of immunomodulation for colon cancer prevention: Results of an in vivo dose escalation trial of levamisole with immunologic endpoints. Cancer detection and prevention, 25(2): 183-91
Hunter, K.W., Fischer, G.W., Sayles, P.C., Strickland, G.T. (1981) Levamisole: Potentiation of primary immunoglobulin M antibody responses in suckling rats. Immunopharmacology, 3(2): 117-27
Janssens, C.J., Helmond, F.A., Wiegant, V.M. (1994) Increased cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in chronically stressed pigs: Influence of housing conditions. Journal of animal science, 72(7): 1771-7
Janjatović, AK., Lacković, G., Božić, F., Popović, M., Valpotić, I. (2008) Levamisole synergizes proliferation of intestinal IgA+ cells in weaned pigs immunized with vaccine candidate F4ac+ nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 31(4): 328-333
Jenkins, E.M., Hurdle, C. (1989) Effect of levamisole on parenteral vaccines for swine dysentery. British veterinary journal, 145(6): 565-72
Jensen, K.H., Pedersen, L.J., Nielsen, E.K., Heller, K.E., Ladewig, J., Jørgensen, E. (1996) Intermittent stress in pigs: Effects on behavior, pituitary-adrenocortical axis, growth, and gastric ulceration. Physiology & behavior, 59(4-5): 741-8
Jin, H., Li, Y., Ma, Z., Zhang, F., Xie, Q., Gu, D., Wang, B. (2004) Effect of chemical adjuvants on DNA vaccination. Vaccine, 22(21-22): 2925-35
Karakowski, L., Krzyzanowski, J., Wrona, Z., Siwicki, A.K. (1999) The effect of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant mares with 1,3/1,6 glucan and levamisole on the immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, selected indices of nonspecific cellular and humoral immunity in foals in neonatal and postnatal period. Vet immunol immunopathol, 1-11, 68
Kimball, E.S., Schneider, C.R., Fisher, M.C., Clark, M.C. (1992) Levamisole causes differential cytokine expression by elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. Journal of leukocyte biology, 52(3): 349-56
Kühlmann-Rabens, I., Wanke, R., Storandt, F., Altmann, B., Lösch, U., Merkenschlager, M. (1987) Attempts to localize the defect in dysgammaglobulinemia of UM-B19 chickens by studying the effect of immunomodulating substances on immunoglobulin and antibody production. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 14(2): 123-43
Mancini, G., Carbonara, A.O., Heremans, J.F. (1965) Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry, 2(3): 235-54
Mcglone, J.J., Salak, J.L., Lumpkin, E.A., Nicholson, R.I., Gibson, M., Norman, R.L. (1993) Shipping stress and social status effects on pig performance, plasma cortisol, natural killer cell activity, and leukocyte numbers. J Anim Sci, 71(4): 888-96
Morrow-Tesch, J.L., McGlone, J.J., Salak-Johnson, J.L. (1994) Heat and social stress effects on pig immune measures. Journal of animal science, 72(10): 2599-609
Mutch, R.S., Hutson, P.R. (1991) Levamisole in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer. Clinical pharmacy, 10(2): 95-109
Mwanza, A.M., Madej, A., Kindahl, H., Lundeheim, N., Einarsson, S. (2000) Plasma levels of cortisol, progesterone, oestradiol-17β and prostaglandin F2α metabolite after ACTH (Synacthen Depot®) administration in ovariectomized gilts. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 47(4): 193-200
Nagy, B., Fekete, P.Z. (1999) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in farm animals. Veterinary research, 30(2-3): 259-84
Otten, W., Kanitz, E., Tuchscherer, M. (2000) Prenatal stress in pigs: Effects on growth, physiological stress reactions and immune function. Archiv fuer Tierzucht, 43(Sonderheft), 159-164
Renoux, G., Renoux, M. (1974) Modulation of immune reactivity by phenylimidothiazole salts in mice immunized by sheep red blood cells. Journal of immunology, 113(3): 779-90
Stull, C.L., Kachulis, C.J., Farley, J.L., Koenig, G.J. (1999) The effect of age and teat order on alpha1-acid glycoprotein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, cortisol, and average daily gain in commercial growing pigs. Journal of animal science, 77(1): 70-4
Symoens, J., Rosenthal, M. (1977) Levamisole in the modulation of the immune response: The current experimental and clinical state. Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society, 21, 175-221
Szeto, C., Gillespie, K.M., Mathieson, P.W. (2000) Levamisole induces interleukin-18 and shifts type 1/type 2 cytokine balance. Immunology, 100(2): 217-24
Tuchscherer, M., Puppe, B., Tuchscherer, A., Kanitz, E. (1998) Effects of social status after mixing on immune, metabolic, and endocrine responses in pigs. Physiol Behav, 64(3): 353-60
van Wauwe, J., Janssen, P.A.J. (1991) On the biochemical mode of action of levamisole: An update. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 13(1): 3-9
Wallgren, P., Wilén, I.L., Fossum, C. (1994) Influence of experimentally induced endogenous production of cortisol on the immune capacity in swine. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 42(3-4): 301-16
Westermann, J., Pabst, R. (1990) Lymphocyte subsets in the blood: A diagnostic window on the lymphoid system?. Immunology today, 11(11): 406-10
Yang, E.V., Glaser, R. (2002) Stress-induced immunomodulation and the implications for health. International Immunopharmacology, 2(2-3): 315-324


article language: English
document type: unclassified
DOI: 10.2298/AVB1206495B
published in SCIndeks: 22/03/2013