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2020, vol. 25, iss. 50, pp. 179-186
Approaches in cereal breeding
aUniversity of Priština - Kosovska Mitrovica, Faculty of Agiculture, Lešak
bAgriculture University of Tirana, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Department of Chemistry, Koder - Kames, Tirana, Albania
cUniversity of Kragujevac, Faculty of Agronomy, Čačak
dUniversity of Kragujevac, Faculty of Science
eUniveristy of Niš, Faculty of Science
fUniversity of Banja Luka, Faculty of Agriculture, Republic of Srpska, B&H
gSerbian Chamber of Commerce, Belgrade
hCollege of Agriculture and Food Technology, Prokuplje
iMegatrend University, Faculty of Biofarming, Bačka Topola
Study of the genetic basis of improving yield and quality of small grains in different environmental conditions (MESTD - 31092)

The main goal of plant breeding is to improve quality traits, yield and resistance to abiotic and biotic stress factors. A thousand years ago, people selected the best plants, seeds or fruits to produce seed for new crops and food for human and animal nutrition. Modern plant breeding is based on genetic principles and contributes to increases in yield and quality components (contents of protein, amino acids, fat, sucrose, mineral elements etc.). Breeders in conventional breeding programs in the last six decades have made changes to plant phenotypes, significantly improved resistance to diseases, earliness, and frost and drought resistance, and improved scientific farming practices, baking and milling technologies, and beverage production technology. Through bioinformatics and improved technology, breeders have developed ways to improve and accelerate the breeding process to combine desired traits in new genotypes as well to operate at the level of individual cells and their chromosomes. Nowadays, modern biotechnology is used to improve human nutrition, and develop genotypes with significantly higher yields and quality compared with genotypes created by conventional breeding. By genetic modification it is possible to add, modify or delete a trait without interfering between two complete genomes. However, genetically modified crops can be used after their assessment in terms of human health, food safety and the environment.
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article language: English
document type: unclassified
DOI: 10.5937/AASer2050179K
received: 25/10/2020
accepted: 25/11/2020
published in SCIndeks: 12/01/2021
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