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2011, vol. 40, br. 6, str. 79-88
Povrede električnom strujom
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
bVisoka medicinska škola strukovnih studija 'Milutin Milanković', Beograd

e-adresapanajotovic@gmail.com
Ključne reči: opekotine; električna struja; povrede električnom strujom; elektroopekotine
Sažetak
Električne povrede se događaju širom sveta i uzrok su pet do deset odsto svih profesionalnih uzroka smrti. Lečenje i rehabilitacija povređenih električnom strujom su dugotrajni, a samo oko 5,3% osoba koje su preživele visoko-voltažne povrede (preko 1.000V) vraća se na raniji posao. Ljudski faktor (nemar, nepažnja) jeste najčešći povod ovih nesreća. Nisko-voltažne elektroopekotine tipično su izazvane kućnim aparatima, dok su visoko-voltažne najčešće industrijski akcidenti. Težina ovakve povrede zavisi od voltaže, jačine, puta struje kroz organizam, trajanja kontakta sa izvorom i tipa strujnog kola (jednosmerna ili naizmenična struja). One nastaju pri direktnom kontaktu sa izvorom struje visokog napona ili putem električnog luka, kao i plamenom ili bleskom. Elektroopekotina ima centralni karbonificirani deo u tački kontakta ili uzemljenja. U kliničkoj slici najdramatičnije je stanje apneje, akutnog zastoja srca, paralize i gubitka svesti. Kod visoko-voltažnih povreda može biti neophodna kardiopulmonalna reanimacija. Promptna reanimacija tečnostima je ključni postupak u prevenciji renalne insuficijencije. Antiklostridijalna profilaksa i antibiotska terapija su obavezni. Urgentna esharotomija i fasciotomija su često neophodni postupci u očuvanju vitalnosti ekstremiteta. I pored toga, postotak amputacija je veliki. Hirurško lečenje podrazumeva rane ekscizije devitalizovanog tkiva i zatvaranje defekata plastičnohirurškim rekonstruktivnim postupcima.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: stručni članak
DOI: 10.5937/ZZ1106079P
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 28.02.2012.

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