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2021, vol. 69, br. 1-2, str. 31-40
Uticaj inovacionih indikatora na povećanje izvoza visoko tehnoloških proizvoda
aInstitut ekonomskih nauka, Beograd
bUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Ekonomski fakultet, Subotica
cUniverzitet Union, Beogradska bankarska akademija - Fakultet za bankarstvo, osiguranje i finansije, Beograd
Ključne reči: inovacije; visoko tehnološki proizvodi; globalni inovacioni indeks; izvoz
Sažetak
Konkurentnost visoko-tehnoloških proizvoda (VTP) na svetskom tržištu je značajnija u odnosu na proizvode srednjeg i niskog kvaliteta. Povećanje inovacijskih performansi, kao bazične karakteristike VTP-a, trebalo bi da dovede do usvajanja visokih tehnologija u proizvodnji i, posledično, do povećanog izvoza VTP-a kao jednog od bitnih faktora konkurentnosti privrede. Shodno tome, u ovom radu smo analizirali korelaciju i uslovljenost izvoza VTP (udeo izvoza u ukupnom izvozu zemlje) i odabrane pokazatelje koji utiču na inovacije: BDP, troškovi istraživanja i razvoja (u četiri sektora), stepen obrazovanja stanovništva, broj istraživača (u četiri sektora) i indeks globalnih inovacija. Cilj rada bio je da identifikuje pokazatelje koji su u najvećoj meri doprineli rastu izvoza VTP-a u analiziranim zemljama (Srbija, Rumunija, Bugarska i Mađarska) u posmatranom desetogodišnjem periodu (2009-2018), kako bi se, na osnovu dobijenih rezultata istraživanja, dale određene preporuke o merama i postupcima koje bi Srbija trebalo da preduzme za povećanje nivoa indeksa inovacija i izvoza VTP-a. U okviru rada analiziran je i izvoz VTP-a u Srbiji, Rumuniji, Bugarskoj i Mađarskoj. Uticaj izabranih pokazatelja na izvoz proizvoda visoke tehnologije analiziran je pomoću POLS, modela, modela fiksnih i modela slučajnih efekata. Rezultati istraživanja u ovom radu pokazuju da ukoliko posmatrane zemlje ne pronađu resurse za povećano ulaganja u obrazovanje, istraživanje i razvoj još dugi niz godina neće dostići prosečne pokazatelje inovacija u EU. Takođe, to će ozbiljno narušiti konkurentnost privreda posmatranih zemalja u uslovima koje diktira savremeno poslovno okruženje i izazovi četvrte industrijske revolucije (Industry 4.0).
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/EKOPRE2102031D
primljen: 21.04.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 25.05.2021.