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2022, vol. 70, br. 3-4, str. 191-205
Uticaj izvoza visokotehnoloških proizvoda na ekonomski rast - primer Srbije, Bugarske, Rumunije i Mađarske
aInstitut ekonomskih nauka, Beograd, Srbija
bUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Ekonomski fakultet, Subotica, Srbija
Projekat:
This paper is financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

Ključne reči: visokotehnološki proizvod; izvoz; inovacije; privredni rast; bruto domaći proizvod.
Sažetak
Inovativni kapacitet predstavlja sposobnost dugoročne proizvodnje i komercijalizacije protoka inovativnih tehnologija i čini suštinski faktor koji utiče na konkurentnost u modernim ekonomijama. Kada su inovacije, istraživanja i razvoj u pitanju, bruto domaći proizvod (BDP) se veoma često koristi kao pokazatelj mogućnosti za ulaganja na nacionalnom nivou, a zarad sticanja uvida u mogućnosti unapređenja inovativnosti i konkurentnosti jedne zemlje. Shodno tome, cilj ovog rada je da se utvrdi da li izvoz visokotehnoloških proizvoda, kao jedan od rezultata primene inovacije u privredi, pozitivno utiče na ukupan privredni rast meren rastom BDP. Da bi sam proces analize imao komparativan karakter u empirijsko istraživanje su bile uključene četiri zemlje: Srbija, Bugarska, Mađarska i Rumunija. Kao glavni izvor podataka korišćena je međunarodna baza podataka Eurostat, a vremenski period obuhvaćen ovim istraživanjem je od 2008. do 2018. godine. Kako bi se utvrdila veza između udela visokotehnoloških proizvoda u ukupnom izvozu zemlje i BDP po glavi stanovnika, u analizi je primenjen model jednostavne linearne regresije. Rezultati istraživanja u ovom radu pokazuju da nije bilo moguće potvrditi pozitivan odnos izvoza visokotehnoloških proizvoda i rasta BDP u slučaju Srbije, Mađarske i Rumunije, dok je u slučaju Bugarske potvrđen uticaj rasta izvoza visokotehnoloških proizvoda na rasta BDP. Imajući u vidu ove dobijene rezultate, najadekvatnije je da se pitanje inovativnosti, izvoza i privrednog rasta ne treba posmatrati isključivo preko razvoja i primene inovacija u visokotehnološkim industrijama, već treba sagledati širi kontekst u smislu koliko inovacije mogu unaprediti ne samo izvoz, već i ukupno poslovanje srednjih i tehnološki nižih (manje zahtevnih) industrija, kakve inovacije su potrebne tim industrijama, kako ih razvijati i primenjivati.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/EKOPRE2204191D
primljen: 21.08.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 09.08.2022.

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