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2022, vol. 50, br. 2, str. 92-100
Penicillium spp. - prouzrokovači plave truleži uskladištenih plodova jabuke
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Poljoprivredni fakultet

e-adresatatjana.dudas@polj.edu.rs
Ključne reči: Penicillium spp; plava trulež; jabuka
Sažetak
Plava trulež, prouzrokovana vrstama roda Penicillium, jedna je od najznačajnijih bolesti uskladištenih plodova jabuke. Ekonomski gubici usled ovog oboljenja procenjuju se na više miliona dolara godišnje. Usled mehaničkih oštećenja, neadekvatne zaštite i tehnologije čuvanja, pojavljuje se na svim sortama jabuke u većem, ili manjem intenzitetu. Različite vrste roda Penicillium mogu prouzrokovati plavu trulež, a najznačajnija vrsta je Penicillium expansum, kako u Republici Srbiji, tako i u svetu. Osim što prouzrokuju velike ekonomske gubitke, vrste roda Penicillium produkuju i mikotoksine koji su štetni po ljudsko zdravlje. Kako ne bi došlo do pojave plave truleži, neophodno je primeniti sve preventivne mere, kao što su pažljivo rukovanje plodovima tokom berbe i održavanje higijenskih uslova u skladištu. Većina fungicida koji se primenjuju u danima pre berbe, ne obezbeđuju potpunu zaštitu plodova, jer se infekcije najčešće javljaju nakon berbe. Zbog toga, upotreba fungicida nakon berbe predstavlja najefikasniji način hemijske zaštite protiv prouzrokovača plave truleži. Pored hemijskih mera zaštite, radi se na pronalaženju biološkog rešenja u cilju kontrole pojave plave truleži na uskladištenim plodovima jabuke. Intenzitet pojave oboljenja značajno je smanjen pojavom hladnjača sa kontrolisanom atmosferom, ali je plava trulež i dalje veoma značajno oboljenje jabuke.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan
DOI: 10.5937/BiljLek2202092D
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 29.04.2022.

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