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2013, vol. 54, br. 1, str. 1-6
Unos kalijuma i zdravlje
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Medicinski fakultet + Institut za javno zdravlje Vojvodine, Novi Sad

e-adresaljiljana.pavlovict@izjzv.org.rs
Sažetak
Kalijum je esencijalni nutrijent neophodan za održavanje normalnog bilansa i osmolarnosti vode u organizmu kao i za održavanje elektrohemijskog potencijala ćelijskih membrana. Za razliku od natrijuma, koji je dominantno ekstraćelijski, kalijum je glavni intraćelijski katjon. Poremećaji homeostaze kalijuma u humanom organizmu manifestuju se disfunkcijom mišića neurološkim, vaskularnim i gastrointestinalnim poremećajima. Disfunkcija srčanog mišića je ozbiljna klinička manifestacija poremećene homeostaze ovog elektrolita. Namirnice koje se koriste u uobičajenoj ishrani sadrže dovoljnu količinu kalijuma te se deficit kalijuma u ishrani zdravih osoba, koji bi bio praćen kliničkim manifestacijama ne očekuje. Optimalan unos kalijuma ima povoljan uticaj na redukciju visine krvnog pritiska. Kalijum iz hrane istovremeno ublažava negativan uticaj natrijuma na visinu krvnog pritiska. Stalni naučni komitet za evaluaciju preporučenog unosa hranljivih materija Instituta za medicinu Akademije nauka SAD kao adekvatan dnevni unos kalijuma definiše unos od 4,7g iz svih izvora (hrana i suplementi) jer je to količina koja ima povoljan uticaj na regulaciju krvnog pritiska, i umanjuje negativne efekte natrijuma (formiranje bubrežnih kamenaca i gubitak koštanog tkiva). Svetska zdravstvena organizacija preporučuje da dnevni unos kalijuma isključivo iz namirnica treba da iznosi najmanje 3,5g. Naučni panel za dijetetske proizvode, ishranu i alergije Evropske agencije za bezbednost hrane ukazuje da se unos 5-6g kalijuma/dan u populaciji zdravih odraslih osoba može smatrati nedovoljnim i navodi rezultate studija koji su pokazali da unošenje 3g kalijuma dnevno u obliku suplemenata kod većine zdravih osoba nije praćeno neželjenim posledicama (suplementacija u opsegu od 1-5g/dan jer pojedinci različito reaguju na povećan unos kalijuma iz suplemenata).
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 23.01.2014.

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