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2021, vol. 66, br. 1, str. 17-25
Uticaji sumpora na prinos, komponente prinosa i sadržaj ulja uljane repice
aAREEO, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agronomic and Horticulture Crops Research Department, Sari, Iran
bGorgan Azad University, Department of Biology, Gorgan, Iran
cGorgan Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

e-adresavrameeh@gmail.com
Sažetak
Proučavani su uticaji četiri tretmana sumpora: S0, S1, S2 i S3, uključujući 0, 12, 24, odnosno 36 kg S ha-1, zajedno sa 115 kg N ha-1, na osobine uljane repice (Brassica napus L.) povezane sa prinosom. Utvrđen je značajan uticaj tretmana na visinu biljke, komponente prinosa, prinos semena i sadržaj ulja. Primena sumpora značajno je povećala većinu osobina u poređenju sa dozom S0. Tretman S3 (36 kg S ha-1) doveo je do najveće srednje vrednosti visine biljke (132 cm) koja je imala istu statističku značajnost sa S2 (24 kg S ha-1). Sumpor je imao sve veći efekat na broj mahuna po biljci, i to od 92 do 196 u tretmanu S0 odnosno S3. Rezultati u tretmanima S0 i S1 sa 92 i 121 mahuna po biljci imali su istu statističku značajnost. Pored toga, S2 i S3 sa 165 i 196 mahuna po biljci nisu pokazali značajnu statističku razliku. Primena sumpora značajno je povećala prinos semena u odnosu na kontrolu (doza S0), i on se kretao od 2744 do 3215 kg ha-1 u tretmanima S0 odnosno S3. Prosečan sadržaj ulja od 45,69, 46,96, 47,46 odnosno 49,53% zabeležen je za 0, 12, 24 odnosno 36 kg S ha-1.

Introduction

The same as other crops, growth, growing stages, yield component characters, the seed yield of oilseed rape depends upon biotic and abiotic agents (Rameeh et al., 2004). Soil fertility status will vary depending on the type of cultivation and cultivation management. Most soils are usually deficient in organic matter, indicating nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus deficiencies (Malik et al., 2004; Sharifi, 2012). Sulphur (S) is considered the fourth major nutrient along with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Sulphur is important for oilseed rape production, and S deficiency frequently constrains canola yield (Jan et al., 2008). Sulphur is essential for the synthesis of compounds such as amino acids, cystine and methionine. In this regard, it activates complex enzyme systems in most plants (Havlin et al., 2005). In addition, sulphur greatly affects rapeseed developmental stages, the most important of which are the increase in protein and oil in oilseed rape (Zhao et al., 1993; Jan et al., 2002; Sattar et al., 2011). Sulphur deficiency mainly leads to a decrease in nitrogen uptake, and the end of this process has an important effect on yield components and finally causes a decrease in seed yield (Fismes et al., 2000; Brennan and Bolland, 2008). In general, characteristics such as total dry matter, harvest index, yield components and grain yield in some rapeseed and mustard genotypes will improve with the increase of sulphur intake (Scherer 2001; Chen et al., 2006; Malhi et al., 2007). About 1.5 kg of sulphur is required to form 100 kg/ha of rapeseed, therefore, to achieve a yield of 2000 kg/ha, approximately 30 kg/ha of sulphur will be required (Jackson, 2000; Kumar et al., 2002; Malhi and Gill, 2002; Kandil and Gad, 2012). As the amount of sulphur consumption increases, the amounts of oil, protein and glucosinolates of canola seeds will also increase (Jackson, 2000; Malhi et al., 2007; Rameeh, 2015). The consumption of sulphur fertilizers leads to an increase in nitrogen efficiency, which improves the amount and, to some extent, the quality of fatty acids. However, the responses of different Brassica species to the absorption of sulphur and the improvement of fatty acids are different (Ahmad and Abdin, 2000; Fismes et al., 2000). The amount of sulphur uptake and transfer in various types of canola cultivars is a function of consumption time, growth stage and plant organs. In this regard, double low varieties of oilseed rape (canola) in comparison with single low varieties of Brassica contain lower sulphur concentrations in seeds and higher sulphur concentrations in pods. In both groups of improved oilseed varieties, including industrial and canola cultivars, a lack of sulphur sources leads to the reduced efficiency of nitrogen consumption (Ceccoti, 1995; Mirzashahi et al., 2010). Low nitrogen uptake efficiency due to sulphur deficiency may lead to soil nitrogen losses (Cheema et al., 2001). According to Abdullah et al. (2010), seeds of Brassica may have a nitrogen-free structural material, in which case part of the structure material is expected to decrease as the grain weight increases, while oil and protein molecules compete to stay in the remaining space (Cheema et al., 2001; Rameeh, 2018). Sulphur plays an essential role in the synthesis of chlorophyll and is also an important component for the synthesis of oil (Brennan and Bolland, 2008; Rehmanuh et al., 2013). Sulphur also plays an important role in the chemical composition of Brassica seeds. Sulphur increases the percentage of seed oil and glucosinolate content (Jan et al., 2002; Subhani et al., 2003; De Pascale et al., 2008). Depending on the external source, sulphur concentrations in different Brassica species, vary between 1 and 16 g/kg in dry matter (Cheema, et al., 2001; Balint and Rengel, 2009).

Due to the importance of the sulphur effect on quantitative and qualitative parameters of oilseed rape, the present experiments were performed to investigate the effect of different sulphur levels on plant height, yield component characters, seed yield, and oil content.

Material and Methods

A field experiment was conducted on the farm located in Abendankash, Sari, Iran (53º 7 E longitude and 36 º32 N latitude, 60 m above sea level). The soil was classified as deep loam soil (Typic Xerofluents, USDA classification), and the average percentages of clay, silt, sand and organic matter were 28, 56, 16 and 2.24, respectively, with a pH of 7.3. Soil samples were found to have 45 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen (N) in the upper 30-cm profile. The field experiment plots received 50 kg P ha-1 and 75 kg K ha-1. The seed of the improved canola cultivar Hyola401 was under study. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Seeds were sown at a uniform rate of 4 kg/ha in the rows of each experimental plot. The treatments under study included different amounts of ammonium sulphate (containing 21% of nitrogen and 24% of sulphur) and urea fertilizer (containing 46% of nitrogen): S0: 250 kg urea ha-1, S1: 227 kg urea+50 kg ha-1 ammonium sulphate ha-1, S2: 204 kg urea ha-1 +100 kg ammonium sulphate ha-1 and S3: 182 kg urea+150 kg ha-1 ammonium sulphate ha-1. S0, S1, S2 and S3 included 0, 12, 24 and 36 kg S ha-1, respectively, and, therefore, all the treatments contained 115 kg ha-1 of pure nitrogen. All stage-related measures were performed uniformly for all experimental units. Plant protection measures, including pest and weed control, were also carried out uniformly for each plot. The yield of each experimental plot was determined based on two middle lines and adjusted to kg ha-1. Ten randomly selected plants from each plot were used to measure the following traits: plant height, number of pods per main stem, number of pods per plant, pod length and number of seeds per pod. Random seed samples from each plot were also used to measure 1000-seed weight, oil and protein content. Oil content was detected with the help of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (Madson, 1976). The recorded data were analyzed according to randomized complete block design criteria (Steel and Torrie, 1980). SAS software, version 9 (SAS INSTITUTE INC., 2004) was used to analyze the variance and compare the means, and the Excel software was used to draw the graph.

Results and discussion

The significant mean squares indicating significant different effects of treatments (different levels of sulphur) were determined for plant height, pods per main axis, pods per plant, pod length, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, and oil content (Table 1).

Table 1. The randomized complete block (RCBD) analysis of variance for the studied traits

S.O.V df MS
Oil (%) Seed yield
(kg ha-1)
1000-seed
weight (g)
Seeds per pod Pod length
(cm)
Pods per plant Pods per
main axis
Plant height
(cm)
Replication 3 167.3** 1166. 8** 2634.1 0.65* 3.25 0.10 3912 0.02
Treatments 3 67.3* 627. 7* 6327.2* 2.85** 41.64* 0.31* 365024** 7.68**
Error 9 11.3 138. 2 781.9 0.15 7.14 0.05 85432 0.41

*, ** Significant at p=0.05 and 0.01, respectively.

As influenced by different sulphur levels, the comparison of plant height means is presented in Table 2 and Figure 1.

Table 2. The mean comparison of yield components, seed yield and oil percentage

Treatments Plant height
(cm)
Pods per
main axis
Pods per plant Pod length
(cm)
Seeds per pod 1000-seed
weight (g)
Seed yield
(kg ha-1)
Oil (%)
S0 118.3b 29.6b 92b 5.83c 17.7b 3.84a 2744b 45.69c
S1 122.4b 48.3ab 121b 6.83b 19.0b 4.00ab 2844ab 46.96cb
S2 129.3a 63.3ab 165a 7.32b 22.2ab 4.02ab 3190ab 47.46b
S3 132.2a 79.3a 196a 8.17a 26.0a 4.31a 3215a 49.53a

S0: 250 kg urea ha-1, S1: 227 kg urea+50 kg ha-1 ammonium sulphate ha-1, S2: 204 kg urea ha-1 +100 kg ammonium sulphate ha-1 and S3: 182 kg urea+150 kg ha-1 ammonium sulphate ha-1.

Figure 1 Means of plant height, yield component characters, seed yield and oil content of oilseed rape var. Hyola401 at different levels of sulphur (S0, S1, S2 and S3 including 0, 12, 24 and 36 kg S ha-1, respectively)

The sulphur application resulted in a significant plant height increase. The S3 (36 kg S ha-1) treatment produced the tallest plant (132 cm), which was classified with S2 (24 kg ha-1) in the same statistical group (Table 2). Sulphur enhances cell division, elongation, and expansion, and it, therefore, tends to increase plant height. The obtained result is in agreement with the results of Ahmad et al. (2006) and Singh and Meena (2004) on mustard. The number of pods on the main axis varied from 27 to 79 in S0 and S3, respectively, and the trait tended to increase with the application of sulphur. The sulphur application caused an increase in pods per plant, and it ranged from 92 to 196 in S0 and S3, respectively. S0 and S1 with 92 and 121 pods per plant belonged to the same statistical group. Also, S2 and S3 with 165 and 196 pods per plant were classified in the same statistical group (Table 2).

The results are in agreement with those obtained by Chen et al. (2006). Pod length varied significantly among the treatments, wherein the S3 (36 kg ha-1) treatment showed the highest pod length (Table 2 and Figure 1). Pod length ranged from 5.83 to 8.17cm in sulphur treatments of S0 and S3, respectively.

The sulphur application significantly increased 1000-seed weight compared to the S0 level. Among S treatments, the highest 1000-seed weight (4.31g) was shown by S3 (36 kg S ha-1), which was on a par with S1 (12 kg S ha-1) and S2 (24 kg S ha-1) with 1000-seed mean values of 4 and 4.02 g, respectively. Rapeseed seed yield potential is a function of the main yield components, including the number of plants per unit area, the number of seeds per plant and the 1000-seed weight. The high performance of the treatments related to the application of sulphur may be due to the increase in the reproductive structure of the plant caused by the high capacity of the sink and the high capacity of the transfer of photoassimilates from source to sink (Chen et al., 2006; Malhi et al., 2007). The sulphur application significantly increased seed yield compared to control (S0 level), and it ranged from 2744 to 3215 kg ha-1 in S0 and S3, respectively.

The oil content varied from 46.69% to 49.35% and was significantly increased to 36 kg ha-1 with the increasing doses of sulphur. Sulphur plays an essential role in the synthesis of chlorophyll and is also an important component influencing the synthesis of oil (Brennan and Bolland, 2008; Rehmanuh et al., 2013). Sulphur also plays an important role in the chemical composition of Brassica seeds, increasing the percentage of seed oil and glucosinolate content (Jan et al., 2002; Subhani et al., 2003; De Pascale et al., 2008).

Conclusion

The sulphur application significantly increased most traits compared to the S0 (control) level. The S3 (36 kg S ha-1) treatment produced a high mean value of plant height (132 cm) which was classified along with S2 (24 kg ha-1) in the same statistical group. Sulphur had an increasing effect on yield component characters, comprising the number of pods on the main axis, number of pods per plant and 1000-seed weight. S0 and S1 with 92 and 121 pods per plant were in the same statistical group as well as S2 and S3 with 165 and 196 pods per plant. The sulphur application significantly increased seed yield compared to the S0 level, and it ranged from 2744 to 3215 kg ha-1 in S0 and S3, respectively. Due to the significantly increasing effect of the maximum level of sulphur application on seed yield and oil content, 36 kg ha-1 of S can be recommended for canola production in the region.

References

Abdallah, M., Dubousset, L., Meuriot, F., Etienne, P., Avice, J.C., & Ourry, A. (2010). Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L. J Exp Bot, 61(10), 2635-2646. [Crossref]
Ahmad, A., & Abdin, M.Z. (2000). Interactive effect of Sulphur and nitrogen on the oil and protein contents and on the fatty acid profiles of oil in the seeds of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. and Coss.). J Agron Crop Sci, 185(1), 49-54. [Crossref]
Ahmad, G., Jan, A., Arif, I., & Arif, M. (2006). Phenology and physiology of canola as affected by nitrogen and sulfur fertilization. Journal of Agronomy, 5(4), 555-562. [Crossref]
Balint, T., & Rengel, Z. (2009). Differential sulfur efficiency in canola genotypes at vegetative and grain maturity stage. Crop and Pasture Science, 60(3), 262-270. [Crossref]
Brennan, R.F., & Bolland, M.D.A. (2008). Significant nitrogen by sulfur interactions occurred for canola grain production and oil concentration in grain on sandy soils in the Mediterranean-type climate of south-western Australia. J Plant Nutr, 31(7), 1174-1187. [Crossref]
Ceccoti, S.P. (1996). Plant nutrient sulphur: A review of nutrient balance, environmental impact and fertilizers. Fertilizer Research, 43(1-3), 117-125. [Crossref]
Cheema, M.A., Malik, M.A., Hussain, A., Shah, S.H., & Basra, S.M.A. (2001). Effects of time and rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application on the growth and the seed and oil yields of canola (Brassica napus L.). J Agron Crop Sci, 186(2), 103-110. [Crossref]
Chen, X., Zhu, Z., Ni, X., & Qian, Q. (2006). Effect of nitrogen and sulfur supply on glucosinolates in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis. Agricultural Sciences in China, 5(8), 603-608. [Crossref]
de Pascale, S., Maggio, A., Orsini, F., Bottino, A., & Barbieri, G. (2008). Sulphur fertilisation affects yield and quality in friarielli (Brassica rapa L. subsp. sylvestris L. Janch. var. esculenta Hort.) grown in a floating system. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83(6), 743-748. [Crossref]
Fismes, J., Vong, P.C., Guckert, A., & Frossard, E. (2000). Influence of sulfur on apparent N-use efficiency, yield and quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on a calcareous soil. Eur J Agron, 12(2), 127-141. [Crossref]
Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., & Nelson, W.L. (2005). Soil fertility and fertilizers: An introduction to nutrient management (7th Ed., p. 221). Singapore: Pearson Education Inc.
Jackson, G.D. (2000). Effects of nitrogen and sulfur on canola yield and nutrient uptake. Agron J, 92(4), 644-649. [Crossref]
Jan, A., Ahmad, G., Jan, T., Jamal, M., & Subhan, F. (2008). Oil yields of Canola as affected by N and S levels and methods of application under rainfed conditions. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 24, 1-10.
Jan, A., Khan, N., Khan, N., Khan, I.A., & Khattak, B. (2002). Chemical composition of canola as affected by nitrogen and sulphur. Asian J Plant Sci, 1(5), 519-521. [Crossref]
Kandil, H., & Gad, N. (2012). Growth and oil production of canola as affected by different sulphur sources. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2, 5196-5202.
Kumar, R., Singh, D., & Singh, H. (2002). Growth and yield of Brassica species as influenced by sulphur application and sowing dates. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 47, 418-421.
Madson, E. (1976). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry as a quick method of determination of oil content in rapeseed. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 53(7), 467-469. [Crossref]
Malhi, S.S., & Gill, K.S. (2002). Effectiveness of sulphate-S fertilization at different growth stages for yield, seed quality and S uptake of canola. Can J Plant Sci, 82(4), 665-674. [Crossref]
Malhi, S.S., Gan, Y., & Raney, J.P. (2007). Yield, seed quality and sulphur uptake of Brassica oil seed crops in response to sulphur fertilization. Agron J, 99(2), 570-577. [Crossref]
Malik, M.A., Aziz, I., Khan, H.Z., & Wahid, M.A. (2004). Growth, seed yield and oil content response of canola (Brassica napus L.) to varying levels of sulphur. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6, 1153-1155.
Mirzashahi, K.M., Pishdarfaradaneh, F., & Nourgholipour, F. (2010). Effects different rates of nitrogen and sulphur application on canola yield in North of Khuzestan. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 6(2), 107-112.
Rameeh, V. (2015). Glucosinolates and their important biological and anticancer effects: A Review. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11, 1-13.
Rameeh, V. (2018). Late sowing date stress tolerance indices for pods and seed yield of rapeseed genotypes. Journal of Oilseed Brassica, 9, 17-21.
Rameeh, V., Rezai, A., & Saeidi, G. (2004). Study of salinity tolerance in rapeseed. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal, 35(19-20), 2849-2866. [Crossref]
Rehmanuh, Q., Iqbal, M., Farooq, I., & Afzal, S.M.A. (2013). Sulphur application improves the growth, seed yield and oil quality of canola. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, 2999-3006.
SAS Institute Inc. (2004). SAS/STAT users guide: Version 9 (Fourth Edition). Cary, North Carolina: Statistical Analysis Institute Inc.
Sattar, A., Cheema, M.A., Wahid, M.A., Saleem, M.F., & Hassan, M. (2011). Interactive effect of sulphur and nitrogen on growth, yield and quality of canola. Crop and Environment, 2, 32-37.
Scherer, H.W. (2001). Sulphur in crop production. Eur J Agron, 14, 81-111.
Sharifi, R.S. (2012). Sulphur fertilizer effects on grain yield and the sum of physiological indices of canola (Brassica napus L.). Annals of Biological Research, 3, 5034-5041.
Singh, A., & Meena, N.L. (2004). Effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield attributes and seed yield of mustard (Brassica juncea) in Eastern plains of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 49, 186-188.
Steel, R.G.D., & Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach (2nd Ed). New York: McGraw Hill Book Co.
Subhani, A., Shabbir, G., Fazil, M., Mahmood, A., Khalid, R., & Cheema, N.M. (2003). Role of sulfur in enhancing the oil contents and yield of rapeseed under medium rainfed conditions. Pakistan Journal of Soil Science, 22, 50-53.
Zhao, F., Bilsborrow, P.E., Evans, E.J., & Syers, J.K. (1993). Sulphur turnover in the developing pods of single and double low varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L). J Sci Food Agric, 62(2), 111-119. [Crossref]
Reference
Abdallah, M., Dubousset, L., Meuriot, F., Etienne, P., Avice, J.-C., Ourry, A. (2010) Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61(10): 2635-2646
Ahmad, A., Abdin, M.Z. (2000) Interactive effect of Sulphur and nitrogen on the oil and protein contents and on the fatty acid profiles of oil in the seeds of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. and Coss.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 185(1): 49-54
Ahmad, G., Jan, A., Arif, I., Arif, M. (2006) Phenology and physiology of canola as affected by nitrogen and sulfur fertilization. Journal of Agronomy, 5(4): 555-562
Balint, T., Rengel, Z. (2009) Differential sulfur efficiency in canola genotypes at vegetative and grain maturity stage. Crop and Pasture Science, 60(3): 262-270
Brennan, R.F., Bolland, M.D.A. (2008) Significant nitrogen by sulfur interactions occurred for canola grain production and oil concentration in grain on sandy soils in the Mediterranean-type climate of south-western Australia. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(7): 1174-1187
Ceccoti, S.P. (1996) Plant nutrient sulphur: A review of nutrient balance, environmental impact and fertilizers. Fertilizer Research, 43(1-3): 117-125
Cheema, M.A., Malik, M.A., Hussain, A., Shah, S.H., Basra, S.M.A. (2001) Effects of time and rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application on the growth and the seed and oil yields of canola (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 186(2): 103-110
Chen, X., Zhu, Z., Ni, X., Qian, Q. (2006) Effect of nitrogen and sulfur supply on glucosinolates in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis. Agricultural Sciences in China, 5(8): 603-608
de Pascale, S., Maggio, A., Orsini, F., Bottino, A., Barbieri, G. (2008) Sulphur fertilisation affects yield and quality in friarielli (Brassica rapa L. subsp. sylvestris L. Janch. var. esculenta Hort.) grown in a floating system. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83(6): 743-748
Fismes, J., Vong, P.C., Guckert, A., Frossard, E. (2000) Influence of sulfur on apparent N-use efficiency, yield and quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on a calcareous soil. European Journal of Agronomy, 12(2): 127-141
Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L. (2005) Soil fertility and fertilizers: An introduction to nutrient management. Singapore: Pearson Education Inc, 221 p
Jackson, G.D. (2000) Effects of nitrogen and sulfur on canola yield and nutrient uptake. Agronomy Journal, 92(4): 644-649
Jan, A., Ahmad, G., Jan, T., Jamal, M., Subhan, F. (2008) Oil yields of Canola as affected by N and S levels and methods of application under rainfed conditions. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 24, 1-10
Jan, A., Khan, N., Khan, N., Khan, I.A., Khattak, B. (2002) Chemical composition of canola as affected by nitrogen and sulphur. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1(5): 519-521
Kandil, H., Gad, N. (2012) Growth and oil production of canola as affected by different sulphur sources. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2, 5196-5202
Kumar, R., Singh, D., Singh, H. (2002) Growth and yield of Brassica species as influenced by sulphur application and sowing dates. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 47, 418-421
Madson, E. (1976) Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry as a quick method of determination of oil content in rapeseed. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 53(7): 467-469
Malhi, S.S., Gan, Y., Raney, J.P. (2007) Yield, seed quality and sulphur uptake of Brassica oil seed crops in response to sulphur fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 99(2): 570-577
Malhi, S.S., Gill, K.S. (2002) Effectiveness of sulphate-S fertilization at different growth stages for yield, seed quality and S uptake of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 82(4): 665-674
Malik, M.A., Aziz, I., Khan, H.Z., Wahid, M.A. (2004) Growth, seed yield and oil content response of canola (Brassica napus L.) to varying levels of sulphur. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6, 1153-1155
Mirzashahi, K.M., Pishdarfaradaneh, F., Nourgholipour, F. (2010) Effects different rates of nitrogen and sulphur application on canola yield in North of Khuzestan. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 6(2): 107-112
Rameeh, V. (2015) Glucosinolates and their important biological and anticancer effects: A Review. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11, 1-13
Rameeh, V. (2018) Late sowing date stress tolerance indices for pods and seed yield of rapeseed genotypes. Journal of Oilseed Brassica, 9, 17-21
Rameeh, V., Rezai, A., Saeidi, G. (2004) Study of salinity tolerance in rapeseed. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 35(19-20): 2849-2866
Rehmanuh, Q., Iqbal, M., Farooq, I., Afzal, S.M.A. (2013) Sulphur application improves the growth, seed yield and oil quality of canola. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, 2999-3006
SAS Institute Inc (2004) SAS/STAT users guide: Version 9. Cary, North Carolina: Statistical Analysis Institute Inc
Sattar, A., Cheema, M.A., Wahid, M.A., Saleem, M.F., Hassan, M. (2011) Interactive effect of sulphur and nitrogen on growth, yield and quality of canola. Crop and Environment, 2, 32-37
Scherer, H.W. (2001) Sulphur in crop production. European Journal of Agronomy, 14, 81-111
Sharifi, R.S. (2012) Sulphur fertilizer effects on grain yield and the sum of physiological indices of canola (Brassica napus L.). Annals of Biological Research, 3, 5034-5041
Singh, A., Meena, N.L. (2004) Effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield attributes and seed yield of mustard (Brassica juncea) in Eastern plains of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 49, 186-188
Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co, Second edition
Subhani, A., Shabbir, G., Fazil, M., Mahmood, A., Khalid, R., Cheema, N.M. (2003) Role of sulfur in enhancing the oil contents and yield of rapeseed under medium rainfed conditions. Pakistan Journal of Soil Science, 22, 50-53
Zhao, F., Bilsborrow, P.E., Evans, E.J., Syers, J. K. (1993) Sulphur turnover in the developing pods of single and double low varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 62(2): 111-119
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.2298/JAS2101017R
primljen: 26.09.2020.
prihvaćen: 19.01.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 09.04.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
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