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2021, vol. 69, br. 3, str. 594-606
Poboljšanje mera bezbednosti primenom tehničkog rešenja na borbenom vozilu pešadije M-80A
aUniverzitet odbrane, Vojna akademija, Beograd
bAcademy of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Department of General Tactics, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan

e-adresaliksko@gmail.com, nusmonova516@gmail.com, undertakerxxx4@gmail.com, goran.lazic@va.mod.gov.rs, antras1209@gmail.com
Ključne reči: mere bezbednosti; kontrola; borbeno vozilo; tehničko unapređenje; signalizator
Sažetak
Uvod/cilj: U radu je prikazan način prevazilaženja mogućeg ugrožavanja mera bezbednosti prilikom rada sa borbenim vozilom pešadije M-80A na poligonima prilikom izvođenja taktičkih vežbi i gađanja u noćnim uslovima. Suština problema je da starešina koji komanduje taktičkim vežbama i gađanjima može da vidi u kom smeru nišani nišandžija-operator, jer 80A nije ugrađen uređaj koji bi to signalizirao. Metode: Na osnovu iskustva prilikom realizacije gađanja se došlo do zaključka da izvršilac gađanja na ovom vozilima kontroli gađanja noću i u uslovima otežane vidljivosti. Rezultati: U radu se predlaže praktično rešenje problema dezorijentacije, nemogućnosti osmatranja meta i okretanja naoružanja van granica polja gađanja, a time i narušavanja mera bezbednosti svih učesnika vežbe i izvršilaca gađanja i pokretnih sredstava. Tehničko unapređenje na vozilu ostvareno je ugradnjom signalizatora koji starešini koji rukovodi vizuelnu informaciju o smeru u kojem je okrenuto naoružanje Zaključak: Ugradnjom signalizatora starešina koji komanduje vežbom i gađanjem pravovremeno može da ostvari kontrolu, otkloni moguće uzroke narušavanja mera bezbednosti i uspešno realizuje planiranu aktivnost.

Solution applied to improve safety measures

This technical solution belongs to the domain of armored vehicle constructions and has multiple applications. The construction and installation of the signalizer ensure that the officer who commands the tactical exercise and shooting has control over the operation of the BVP M-80A unit at distances of over 600 m. The application of this technical improvement allows complete implementation and respect of safety measures during tactical live-fire exercises at night. In addition to the construction and installation of the signaling device, the construction of additional lighting is also planned with the aim of preparing weapons and ammunition for exercises at night or in reduced visibility conditions (Školski centar oklopno-mehanizovanih jedinica JNA, 1990).

Construction defect to be corrected by applying this technical solution - improvement

The BVP M-80A is not equipped with a signaling device that provides visual information in which direction the weapon is directed (Savezni sekretarijat za narodnu odbranu, 1988a) unlike the M-84 tank where the headlight is installed on the turret (Novinsko-izdavačka ustanova "Vojska", 1995). The BVP M-80A is armed with a 20mm cannon and a 7.62mm machine gun (Savezni sekretarijat za narodnu odbranu, 1988b). The officer in charge of a tactical exercise or shooting is not able to exercise control over the operation of mechanized units in conditions of reduced visibility (rain, fog, snow, etc.) or at night.

Construction defect

The curricula of specialised classes for cadets of the Military Academy and reserve officer training course, armored units, prescribe both day and night-time shooting on the automated shooting range.

On the Orešac automated shooting range (ASR), the track for armored vehicles is about 600 m long. At the end of the track, there is space for turning armored vehicles after shooting has ended. At the command of the officer in charge, the driver starts turning the armored vehicle in order to get back to the starting line and during the turn the weapon should aim at the targets in order not to violate safety measures. At all times, the shooting commander should know/have visual control of the direction the weapon is facing (Školski centar oklopno-mehanizovanih jedinica JNA, 1990). Due to the fact that the BVP M-80A is not equipped with a visual signaling device, the tactical exercise or shooting commander cannot fully control the operation of the mechanized unit crew (Generalštab Vojske Jugoslavije, 1998).

The construction and installation of a signaling device on the BVP M-80A turret solved the problem of observing in which direction vehicle weapons are positioned. In this way, security was improved during activities at night or in conditions of reduced visibility. In addition to the mentioned signaling device, an additional light should be installed to illuminate the turret during the weapon and ammunition preparation (Končar et al, 2016).

During tactical exercises and shooting at night and in reduced visibility conditions, the lecturers at the armored unit training course used the mentioned device and as such it proved to be effective and the security measures were raised to a higher level. There was no engagement in the armored units of the Serbian Army to find a solution to the problem. The explanation given is that, during tactical and shooting exercises, vehicles are occupied by commanders of mechanized units, trained to successfully realize all tasks. However, it is clear that the officer in charge of the exercise still has no control over the activities of the gunner-operator of a mechanized unit.

Description of the technical solution

The BVP M-80A signaling device with additional light is the result of many years of experience of the Military Academy officers, gained in the realization of shooting training by armored units. This structural element of the BVP M-80A is intended for shooting at night and in conditions of reduced visibility on the automated shooting range of armored units.

The main parts are:

  • signaling device,

  • distributors with switches and sockets,

  • electrical installation kit, and

  • extra light.

The parts are structurally adapted to be easy to install and to be operated easily and safely.

Installation:

In Figure 1a, there is a signaling device on the stand and with a conductor. Figure 1a shows the situation when the signaling device is switched off, and Figure 1b when the signaling device is switched on.

Figure 1 Signalizer with the mount
Рис. 1
Сигнализатор с креплением
Слика 1
Сигнализатор са постољем

The signaling stand is mounted on the launcher of the anti-tank guided missile and fixed with a screw without violating the purpose of the launcher (Savezni sekretarijat za narodnu odbranu, 1988c).

The signaling device is connected to the distributor by a three-pole contact. The distributor is installed on the anti-tank guided missile launcher and secured so that it does not obstruct the launcher operation. There are two three-pole sockets on the distributor (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Distributor
Рис. 2
Распределитель
Слика 2
Разводник

The three-pole contact of the signaling device is connected to the lower socket while the three-pole contact of the additional light is connected to the upper socket.

A switch intended for switching on the additional light is installed on the distributor (Figure 3a and Figure 3b).

Figure 3a Additional light - off
Рис. 3a
Дополнительное освещение – выкл.
Слика 3a
Додатно светло – искључено

Figure 3b Additional light – on
Рис. 3б
Дополнительное освещение – вкл.
Слика 3б
Додатно светло – укључено

A common conducting wire connects all parts in the circuit.

The "+" pole conductor is placed and fastened to the distribution box intended for the installation of the periscope heater for a gunner – operator, Figure 4 (Savezni sekretarijat za narodnu odbranu, 1988a).

Figure 4 "+" pole
Рис. 4
"+" полюс
Слика 4
"+" пол

The "-" pole conductor is placed on the turret edge (Figure 5).

Figure 5 "-" pole
Рис. 5
"-" полюс
Слика 5
"-" пол

The signalizer and the additional light are switched on in the following order:

  • set the "ground" switch to the upper position (Figure 6).

  • Figure 6 Control panel in the BVP M-80A control section
    Рис. 6
    Панель управления в секции управления БВП М-80А
    Слика 6
    Контролна табла у управном одељењу БВП М-80А

  • set the gunner's periscope heater switch to the upper position (ON), Figure 7 (Končar & Isailović, 2009).

  • Figure 7 Gunner's periscope heater switch
    Рис. 7
    Выключатель обогревателя перископа наводчика
    Слика 7
    Прекидач грејача перископа нишанџије

Figure 8 shows the BVP M swithed on just before the start of shooting on the automated shooting range.

Figure 8 BVP M-80A at the starting line
Рис. 8
БВП М-80А на стартовой точке
Слика 8
БВП М-80А на полазној линији

Figure 9 shows the BVP M-80A with the signaling device installed and switched on while moving during a night shooting exercise.

Figure 9 BVP M-80A firing on the move on the track of the automated shooting range
Рис. 9
БВП М-80А ведет стрельбу с ходу по трассе автоматизированног острельбища
Слика 9
БВП М-80А на стази аутоматизованог стрелишта током кретања реализације гађања

The signaling device is clearly visible, sending visual information that the weapon barrel is facing the target. In case that the signal light is not visible, shooting is stopped, the brake is used, and the weapon barrel is directed towards the target(s) (Školski centar oklopno-mehanizovanih jedinica JNA, 1990).

When the signal light is spotted again, shooting continues. In the situation when there is a fault on the signaling device, shooting is stopped until the fault is repaired by an electrical mechanic.

Conclusion

The construction and installation of a signalizer enable a commanding officer in charge of the tactical exercise and shooting to completely control the operation of a mechanized unit at night and in conditions of reduced visibility. Security measures are fully complied with owing to this technical improvement. The construction and installation of an additional light to illuminate the turret enable the gunner-operator to have improved conditions for the weapon and ammunition preparation as well as for eliminating malfunctions and controlling the weapon unloading after the end of shooting.

References

Generalštab Vojske Jugoslavije. (1998). Pravilo gađanja naoružanjem OMJBelgrade: Generalštab Vojske Jugoslavije. (in Serbian)
Končar, M., & Isailović, M. (2009). Naoružanje i oprema BVP M-80A, priručnik. Belgrade: Military Academy. (in Serbian)
Končar, M., Mutavdžić, D., & Nikolić, B. (2016). Lighting set tiles infantry fighting vehicle M-80A. In: II International scientific conference safety and crisis management - theory and practice safety for the future, September 29-30, Belgrade. (pp. 96-100). Retrieved from https://bekmen.rs/zbornik/2016/2016-Zbornik-SRP.pdf on 9 April 2021.
Novinsko-izdavačka Ustanova Vojska. (1995). Uputstvo i program gađanja naoružanjem oklopnih i mehanizovanih jedinica. (in Serbian)
Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu odbranu (SSNO). (1988). Borbeno vozilo pešadije M-80 i M-80A - priručnik za vojnika (in Serbian). Belgrade.
Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu odbranu (SSNO). (1988). Tehničko uputstvo za BVP M-80 i M-80A - opis, rukovanje, osnovno i tehničko održavanje - knjiga. Belgrade. (in Serbian)
Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu odbranu (SSNO). (1988). Tenk M-84 - opis, rukovanje, osnovno i tehničko održavanje - knjiga 2. Belgrade. (in Serbian)
Školski Centar oklopno-mehanizovanih jedinica JNA. (1990). Naoružanje BVP M-80A - priručnik za pitomce. Banja Luka. (in Serbian)
Reference
Generalštab Vojske Jugoslavije (1998) Pravilo gađanja naoružanjem OMJ. Belgrade
Končar, M., Isailović, M. (2009) Naoružanje i oprema BVP M-80A, priručnik. Belgrade: Military Academy
Končar, M., Mutavdžić, D., Nikolić, B. (2016) Lighting set tiles infantry fighting vehicle M-80A. u: II International scientific conference safety and crisis management - theory and practice safety for the future, September 29-30, Belgrade, pp.96-100, https://bekmen.rs/zbornik/2016/2016-Zbornik-SRP.pdf, 9 April 2021, ISBN: 978-86-80698-01-4
Novinsko-izdavačka Ustanova Vojska (1995) Uputstvo i program gađanja naoružanjem oklopnih i mehanizovanih jedinica. Belgrade
Savezni Sekretarijat Za Narodnu Odbranu Ssno (1988) Borbeno vozilo pešadije M-80 i M-80A - priručnik za vojnika. Belgrade
Savezni Sekretarijat Za Narodnu Odbranu Ssno (1988) Tehničko uputstvo za BVP M-80 i M-80A - opis, rukovanje, osnovno i tehničko održavanje - knjiga. Belgrade
Savezni Sekretarijat Za Narodnu Odbranu Ssno (1988) Tenk M-84 - opis, rukovanje, osnovno i tehničko održavanje - knjiga 2. Belgrade
Školski Centar Oklopno-Mehanizovanih Jedinica J.N.A. (1990) Naoružanje BVP M-80A - priručnik za pitomce. Banja Luka
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/vojtehg69-31837
primljen: 14.04.2021.
revidiran: 20.06.2021.
prihvaćen: 22.06.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 08.07.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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