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2022, vol. 56, br. 1, str. 189-209
Društvene i individualne pretpostavke za interkulturalnu komunikaciju
aUniverzitet u Prištini sa privremenim sedištem u Kosovskoj Mitrovici, Filozofski fakultet, Katedra za sociologiju
bUniverzitet u Prištini sa privremenim sedištem u Kosovskoj Mitrovici, Filozofski fakultet, Filološke katedre, Katedra za engleski jezik i književnost

e-adresaolivera.markovic@pr.ac.rs, natasa.bakic.miric@pr.ac.rs
Sažetak
Dok je multikulturalnost politički preduslov za pravnu garanciju i zaštitu manjinskih grupa, dotle interkulturalnost podrazumeva uspostavljanje odnosa između pojedinaca ili grupa koje pripadaju različitim kulturama uz verovanje da se ljudsko iskustvo kulturološkim kontaktima obogaćuje i razvija. Da bi osoba mogla da razume druge kulture, pre svega treba da poznaje sopstvenu kulturu, jezik, religiju, vrednosti, verovanja, norme i poglede na svet. Posebno su aktualne debate koje imaju za cilj traženje adekvatnog odnosa između modernih nacionalnih država i etničkih i nacionalnih manjina koje su domicilne ili novopridošle na njihovim teritorijama. Rešenje se traži u interkulturalnoj komunikaciji kao narednom koraku koji bi sproveo u praksu multikulturalne pretpostavke, odnosno pojedince doveo do uvažavanja vlastite i tuđe kulture i do interkulturalne razmene koja bi predstavljala konačni, poželjni proizvod zamišljenih politika. U radu su predstavljene neke od pretpostavki za interkulturalnu komunikaciju kojima se postiže interaktivni odnos sa ljudima i/ili drugim kulturološkim grupama. Potreba da se diskutuje o ovim pojmovima leži u okolnostima u kojima ih u modernom svetu nije moguće prenebregnuti, pre svega, zato što nije moguć povratak na vreme u kojem grupe sa različitom kulturološkom i identitetskom osnovom više neće biti zainteresovane da zastupaju svoju različitost.

Introduction

Multiculturalism is not a new social phenomenon on the contrary - human migration and mixing of social groups are at the very core of human sociability. However, it is only in the modern world that opportunities have been created for a large number of participants, that is citizens who first internalize modern group identities, then incorporate them into personal identities, and then impose them as a public issue1.

Debates on the best ways to regulate relations within nation states and ethnic, national and other minorities living in those states are indispensable in the modern world. Conflict, whether manifested or latent, between minority groups and nation-states is a structural phenomenon of the modern world. We can hardly find a minority group that does not seek better treatment and recognition then it has had in the past. It is a real global phenomenon today since there is no part of the world in which there is no need or a problem that requires solution to a greater or lesser extent. There is not a single modern state that can avoid facing the demands of social groups for a specific identity issues that distinguish them from the majority, even if they do not recognize multiculturalism as an official policy. While multiculturalism is governed by a specific policy, which has political and legal aspects, interculturality implies the establishment of relations between individuals or groups belonging to different cultures with the belief that human experience is enriched and developed through cultural contacts.

Interculturality encourages thinking about differences between cultures, the fight against prejudice and stereotypes, peaceful coexistence between peoples, individuals or groups of different ethnic backgrounds, equal opportunities in education, different religions, different views, attitudes and sexual orientations. Therefore, interculturality is not just the inclusion of minorities in social life on the basis of a set of recognized and guaranteed rights, but the change of social and political systems to make such inclusion meaningful. As Bašić (2017, p. 40) points out:

"The contents of multicultural policies were mostly directed towards minority groups and their integration in both educational and cultural policies, which were supposed to be harmonized with proclaimed multicultural policies, which implies that the contents were mostly directed towards ethno-cultural minorities, and not towards citizenry which should comprise all members of society".

In this way, the specificity of ethno-cultural minorities whose identities are constant is overemphasized, which is not the case here. As an attempt to overcome the above problem, we can look at the initiative of the Council of Europe, which adopted the "White Book on Intercultural Dialogue" in 2008, which recommends intercultural dialogue, and not the recognition and separation of ethnic communities. Respect for diversity while maintaining social cohesion can also be achieved by "strengthening democratic citizenship and participation; it is necessary to teach and adopt intercultural knowledge; create and expand the space for intercultural dialogue and raise that dialogue to the international level." (ICTR, 2009, p. 6)

Consequently, multilingualism2 is a feature of almost all countries, since it is a necessary element for ethnic and national minorities to survive in the collective of the majority, while avoiding assimilation or ghettoization. Namely, learning a foreign or a second language is not only an upgrade of language knowledge and skills, but also means of exchanging cultural content between language communities (Byram, 1997; 2008), which is certainly one of the conditions for successful intercultural communication between different cultural groups.

Intercultural communicative competence and its main components

Intercultural communication is verbal and non-verbal interaction between people who come from different cultural backgrounds and who have different habits, beliefs, values, norms, religion, language and worldviews. Therefore, communication with different social groups is culturally specific, with possible problems, which can, in turn, significantly affect the communication process. For example, person A and person B may be aware that a cultural error has been made in the communication process. They are both in the alertness state and they may decide to correct the mistake verbally (e.g. try to clarify the misunderstanding or apologize to one another) or to ignore it. At the opposite end of the spectrum, both communicators may be unaware that a cultural mistake has been made. This means that communicators can only later realize that there was a cultural misunderstanding in the communication process, but the misunderstanding cannot, unfortunately, be corrected then. However, the most common occurrence in intercultural communication is that only person A or person B is aware of the intercultural mistake, and the other person (offender A or B) does not recognize that a cultural error has been made. This means that, while person A is experiencing more and more frustration, person B is still unaware of the existing intercultural problem (Bakić-Mirić, 2012, pp. 49-50). Thus, if both communicators continue to ignore the cultural factors that influence communication, the inability to adequately interpret the other's behavior can easily spiral out of control and raise this issue to the level of confrontation and/or cultural conflict. Therefore, Ting-Toomey & Chung (2011), Jandt (2017) and Neuliep (2021) believe that everyone involved in intercultural communication must pay attention to the following:

 - Intercultural communicator is always focused on the communication process.

 - Intercultural communicator is always able to recognize ethnocentrism.

 - Intercultural communicator does not take verbal and non-verbal cultural differences in communication personally.

 - Intercultural communicator knows how to deal with ambiguity in unclear intercultural situations.

 - Intercultural communicator can communicate in an efficient and adaptable way using a variety of constructive verbal and non-verbal communication skills.

Samovar, Porter and McDaniel (2017) state that "communicating with people from different cultures is often associated with wrong personal and emotional reactions that lead to feelings of awkwardness and frustration" while success in communication implies the communicator's willingness to "face the challenges posed by linguistic differences, unknown or different customs, behaviors, and cultural differences in verbal and nonverbal communication" (p. 103). This is also noted by Byram (1997), who believes that "intercultural competence is the ability to understand the relationship between different cultures and one's own culture, accept the differences that exist between them and then understand them critically and analytically" (p. 35). Simply put, this indicates that being a competent intercultural communicator means having efficient and adequate interactions with people from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Authors such as Jackson (2020), Martin & Nakayama (2018) and Gudykunst (2005) single out nine components of intercultural competence that affect the ability to interact effectively in a different cultural space. These are: 1) motivation, 2) cultural knowledge, 3) communication skills, 4) sensitivity, 5) character, 6) value system, 7) self-knowledge, 8) empathy and 9) effective listening.

 1) Motivation is perhaps the most important and simplest competence because it implies readiness to overcome personal beliefs as well as personal desire to improve the way of communicating with people who come from different cultures.

 2) Knowledge as part of intercultural competence implies understanding the rules, norms and expectations related to the culture of the people with whom one communicates.

 3) Communication skills include listening, observing, analyzing, interpreting and behaving in communication. It is something that is learned throughout life and is part of intracultural communication (or communication with people from one's own culture). However, it is important to always keep in mind that communication skills that are acceptable in one culture may be inappropriate and unacceptable in another.

 4) Sensitivity implies flexibility, patience, empathy, curiosity towards other cultures, acceptance of differences, as well as tolerance towards ambiguities. This means understanding different customs, behaviors, beliefs and not rejecting them just because they are different or unknown.

 5) Character is usually defined as one of the traits that distinguish people from one another. The most important characteristic associated with character is reliability together with honesty, respect, fairness, the ability to make good choices, honor, altruism, honesty and good will. These are all qualities that make a competent intercultural communicator.

 6) The value system is also important because it identifies personal attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices and biases that greatly affect worldviews. For example, if person A has a negative attitude towards a minority community and person B, who is a member of that community, talks to person A, person A's attitude during communication will affect what person B will say. This shows that if an individual knows what s/he likes or dislikes and if they is aware of the degree of their own ethnocentrism, it will help them understand and discover the ways in which such attitudes affect communication.

 7) Knowing yourself should start with knowing your own culture because people see other cultures through the lens of their own culture and that includes the ability to communicate with people who have different backgrounds, speak different languages and come from different cultural backgrounds.

 8) Empathy means that people should imagine how they would feel if they were a person from another culture (their feelings and experiences) in an intercultural encounter. As Arasaratnam and Doerfel (2005, p. 150) observe, a competent intercultural communicator is focused on the person with whom they communicate and empathize with them. This connection between empathy and acceptance is also mentioned by Calloway-Thomas (2010, p. 11), who says that empathy is based on acceptance of differences and a positive attitude towards them.

 9) Listening skills are an integral part of the abovementioned intercultural competencies, because listening and culture are interrelated. Thus Morreale, Spitzberg and Barge (2006, p. 40) point out that cultural differences exist in listening style and that effective listening in cultures reduces unnecessary misunderstandings while Samovar, Porter and McDaniel (2017, p. 245) believe that there are two ways in which culture and communication mutually influence each other in the listening process. The first way is certainly direct and indirect listening. In cultures of direct listening (such as Germany, France and the USA), people primarily want to hear facts and concrete information. Listeners in these cultures also face speakers directly and feel comfortable asking questions. In cultures of indirect listening (for example, Japan, Finland, Sweden, Serbia), people listen in a completely different way. Interruptions do not occur while the person is speaking because it is part of the listener's code of conduct. Questions are asked at the end and not during the conversation out of respect. Another way is feedback, which is defined as information generated by the person who receives the message and then "returns" it to the person who sent the original message. This information can be a smile, then the words "No, thank you" or even complete silence. Regardless of the way feedback is sent, a competent intercultural communicator uses feedback both to observe the communication process and to gain some control over it. As feedback is very important, people involved in communication must provide feedback as it can in most cases alleviate intercultural misunderstanding.

Also, flexibility is very important in the communication process and actually represents tolerance for ambiguities in the interpretation of feedback. For example, if competition is valued in a culture and a person from that culture communicates with someone from a culture that values cooperation and interpersonal harmony, such behavior will be considered aggressive and rude. Perhaps the best advice for developing tolerance for ambiguity is to exercise patience, expect the unexpected, be adaptable, and refrain from judging the behavior of others. Lastly, in order to become a successful intercultural communicator, one should be able to see the world from a different perspective.

Barriers to intercultural communication as a source of problems in a multicultural society

Cultural differences that exist between members of different cultures can serve as a solid ground for barriers in intercultural communication. If stereotypes, prejudices, ethnocentrism, bigotry, discrimination and racism are added to this, barriers in intercultural communication, unfortunately, become inevitable. What has also been recognized as a problem is the danger of multicultural policies that emphasize the differences and group identities of different cultures living in the same cultural space, which can be portrayed as ghettoization and separatism - as a last resort. In a multicultural society, different cultures, ethnic and religious groups live in the same territory but do not have to be in contact with each other (Marković-Savić, 2018).

For example, ethnocentrism can lead to members of one cultural group behaving superiorly to another cultural group because they look at other groups through the lens of their own culture and its values (Bakić-Mirić, 2012, p. 74). This is particularly evident in regions where there are permanent, persistent and deep social tensions in ethnic relations, as is the case, for instance, in Kosovo and Metohija. Longitudinal research conducted among the student population (in Kosovska Mitrovica from 2009 to 2016 and in Belgrade in 2010 and 2014, respectively) indicates a high level of "strong" negative attributes with strong emotional content and a negative value sign towards Albanians (Marković-Savić, 2016, p. 24). In addition to negative stereotypes, both student populations show a high ethnic distance towards Albanians (Šuvaković, Petrović, 2016). The situation is the same vice versa; in a survey (conducted in late 2016 and early 2017) among Albanian students in Kosovo and Metohija, the findings correspond to a high ethnic distance, so that the student population studying in Priština shows the highest level of ethnic distance towards Serbs (Šuvaković, 2019, p. 209). In such conditions, intercultural communication is extremely difficult, if it is existent at all.

One of the ubiquitous forms of racism should also be mentioned here - tokenism, which is a policy or practice of limited inclusion or cultural, artistic and/or political representation or representation of members of a minority group, usually creating the illusion of inclusion instead of overt discrimination (intentional or not). Typical examples of tokenism are, for instance, the inclusion of members of a minority group in a majority group, thus creating the illusion of inclusion and equality, although in reality it is quite discriminatory (Parvis, 2007). Such case is shown by Šuvaković A. (2019) who says that one of the causes of distance between minority and majority groups is "the lack of minimum communication, that is, knowledge of the language of the majority community, which ignores the need for a majority community" (p. 327). In this regard, and based on the already mentioned research conducted among Albanian students in Priština in late 2016 and 2017 and among Serbian students in Kosovska Mitrovica in late 2016, the Bogardus scale determined that 80.3% of Serbian students do not speak or understand Albanian, 53.7% do not want to learn Albanian while 49% believe that Albanian is not useful simultaneously stating that the Albanian language is useless as a subject in the Serbian education system in Kosovo and Metohija. The situation is similar with Albanian students, where half of the surveyed students neither speak nor understand Serbian, 38.55% believe that knowledge of Serbian is not useful, 52.2% have no desire to learn Serbian while 76.6% explicitly oppose the introduction Serbian language in the Albanian education system in Kosovo and Metohija. Therefore, it is quite clear that the high distance between the Serbian and Albanian communities produces a lack of desire to establish any form of communication, although knowledge of the language of another ethnic community is inevitable because communication between communities is a condition of all conditions for ending divisions and demarcations caused by centuries old religious and national conflict in Kosovo and Metohija, which, in Šuvaković's opinion, "at the same time contributes to the objectification of memory, since otherwise monopolies and collective memory would be exclusively based on the ethnic interpretation of each community individually" (Šuvaković, A., 2019, p. 337).

The ability to communicate and coexist with ethnic and/or culturally different minorities or minority groups without the above barriers is not only necessary but also essential to minimize potential problems in an intercultural context because, as Šuvaković A. puts it, "communication in the present is a necessity for the transmission and cessation of the boundaries between two communities in one space" (2019., p. 328).

It is also equally important to consider the following components that can significantly disrupt the process of intercultural communication:

Linguistic differences are an obvious obstacle to intercultural communication. For example, if person A speaks the language of the dominant cultural group and person B speaks the language of the minority cultural group, they will not be able to establish communication. Even if you have learned a language or an interpreter is available, dialects, different accents and slang can create problems. In addition, words are not translated literally from one language to another and the same word can have different meanings for people whose majority's language is not their mother tongue.

Multilingualism for the purpose of intercultural communication is a factor that ethnic and national minorities insist on, as a solution for overcoming assimilation and the path to integration into the majority community while preserving one's own identity. As Kimlika (2002) convincingly showed, language is a key category of building and empowering a nation, that is, nation states. Language is also a crucial factor in any culture3. "There is no culture without linguistic expression, and there is no language without cultural content" says Bugarski (2016, p. 113), and further postulates the indispensable addition to the rule that one language can serve several cultures, and that one culture can be expressed by several languages. This actually leads to the situation that linking one language to one culture and vice versa is extremely rare and, in the opinion of the authors of this paper, can be considered cultural appropriation today.

In addition to language, nonverbal communication is also important. People are sometimes offended by the differences that exist in nonverbal communication in different cultures. For instance, proxemics and oculesics are interpreted differently in different cultures. This means that people from Southeast Europe (including the Balkans) tend to use more eye contact than the British and the Americans, which the latter may find aggressive. On the other hand, Europeans tend to laugh less than Americans and that is why Americans usually think that Europeans are not friendly.

The level of context is important in communication because it implies the importance of direct messages that are exchanged between different cultures. In low-context cultures (which include the United States, the Scandinavian countries and Germany), explicit messages are sent in words. In these cultures, saying "no" when thinking "no" is considered sincere. Cultures of high context expect the listener to understand that there are several meanings and interpretations of what is said (such as Japan, China, Saudi Arabia, Serbia).

Cultural differences are the cause of differences in behavior in individuals or groups such as body language, thinking, communication style, manners etc., which can lead to poor communication. Culture also sets specific norms that dictate behavior because they provide guidelines for acceptable or unacceptable behavior.

Similar to ethnocentrism and stereotyping, religion can influence communication when it creates a certain image of people of different faiths because religious views influence what people think about others and create differences. Therefore, the basic goal of religion should be, as Bazić and Sekulić (2017) state, to "develop the aspiration to establish good relations with other people, nations, religious communities and cultures different from one's own" (p. 73), which is actually the bedrock of intercultural communication.

Emotions that are shown during the communication differ between cultures. While members of some cultures control their emotions and feelings in communication (e.g. Germans, Americans, Asian countries), members of other cultures feel comfortable expressing them (e.g. Serbia, Greece, Italy). This points to the fact that expressing emotions during communication can result in complete withdrawal or even avoidance of communication.

If we take into account all of the above, the tendency to interpret and evaluate the behavior of a person or group of people before we even meet and understand them together with stereotypes and prejudices towards them, actually prevents the correct interpretation of their behavior and communication. Therefore, one should expand the scope of perception, observe and set aside one's own interpretation (what we think) and assessment (what we feel) as well as unconscious bias, and seek clarification when there is doubt about something that has been said in the communication process. In this regard, in the process of intercultural communication, it is crucial to clarify the intention behind every word and check whether the message is correctly understood by asking for feedback.

Good intercultural communication only happens between people who openly accept their differences. However, it is important to note that it is sometimes very difficult to establish good communication with some individuals despite good intentions. However, the goal in any communication with people from different cultures should be good intercultural communication, which Kim (2001, p. 259) defines as "the ability of an individual to perceive the key characteristics of intercultural communication, namely cultural differences, the unknown and stress. " That is why both Cloak and Goldsmith (2011, p. 5) said, that

"a communicator cannot stop at knowing that the people s/he is in contact with have different customs, goals and patterns of thinking than their own. S/he must know that different values, attitudes and feelings exist and must be able to accept them, which does not mean that they must neglect their own values, beliefs and norms".

Conclusion

While policies of multiculturalism are easier to understand as a term, through normative solutions, it is a real challenge to create an atmosphere of interculturality and intercultural communication as a medium for transmitting messages, in the conditions of post-conflict areas. The number of ethnic conflicts is globally on the rise, to a greater or lesser extent, among all religions and it has proven to be resistant to materialism. Obviously, intercultural communication is only a sporadic phenomenon without support in the policies of multiculturalism, while intercultural contact is only effective when it is supported by the multicultural policy of a nation-state (Boucher, Maclure, 2018). The synergy of social conditions and personal sensibility is necessary so that multicultural policies do not remain a "lost cause" especially in a "divided society" in a frozen conflict such is the case in Kosovo and Metohija.

Therefore, multicultural policies as well as intercultural communication represent an opportunity to exchange ideas that lead to a change in perception of the differences that exist between people and cultures and as such are based on the idea of a better and more humane society and future in general. A competent intercultural communicator should have motivation, cultural knowledge, verbal and non-verbal communication skills, empathy and the ability to listen effectively in order to interact with people from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. In order to succeed in this, they must, first of all, know their own culture and identity, overcome intercultural barriers because only in this way can they understand other cultures and establish effective intercultural communication with them.

Finally, understanding multiculturalism and intercultural communication assumes that people are basically social beings who strive to communicate with each other. Discussion of what they disagree on should basically be an opportunity to understand and accept different values. On the other hand, poor governance of multicultural policies causes misunderstanding and intolerance of ethnic communities, human rights violations and discrimination, which results in poor intercultural communication. This inevitably leads to latent, and then overt conflicts in society. Finally, in this context, multiculturalism and intercultural communication represent the prevention of social conflicts or at least their reduction i.e. keeping them under control.

Endnotes

1An interesting book on French nationalism by the American historian Eugen Weber called Peasants Become French: Modernizing Rural France (1976), for instance, says that French national consciousness did not exist among French peasants until the late 19th century. In fact, local identities and languages (Breton, Gascon, Basque, Catalan, Flemish, Alsatian) were predominant until the French state, through the army and school, established a national awareness of belonging to a common French nation.
2“The notion of multilingualism is inseparable from the notion of interculturality” which, in Šuvaković’s opinion, contributes to “improving interculturality, which would better and more successfully overcome ethnic and other stereotypes” (Šuvaković, A., 2018, p. 111).
3Language is also considered a cultural heritage. This connection is also protected by legal acts such as the European Convention on Culture from 1954 or the Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society from 2005 (for more on this topic, see Rakić, 2021).

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O članku

jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/socpreg56-36121
primljen: 28.01.2022.
revidiran: 20.03.2022.
prihvaćen: 21.03.2022.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 29.04.2022.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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