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2012, vol. 65, br. 11-12, str. 489-495
Jod i štitasta žlezda, sa nuklearnim katastrofama i bez njih
Klinički centar Vojvodine, Klinika za endokrinologiju, dijabetes i bolesti metabolizma, Novi Sad

e-adresaDrdjilas@eunet.rs
Ključne reči: Jod; Štitna žlezda; Tiroidni hormoni; Nesreće; Oslobađanje radioaktivnog materijala; Radioizotopi joda; Karcinomi štitne žlezde; Dete
Sažetak
Uvod. Jod je mikroelement koji je neophodan i ograničavajući supstrat za sintezu hormona štitaste žlezde. On je esencijalni element koji omogućava štitastoj žlezdi da produkuje hormone tiroksin (T4) i trijodotironin (T3). Sinteza hormona štitaste žlezde i metabolizam joda. Tri molekula joda potrebna su za sintezu trijodtironina, a četiri molekula za sintezu tiroksina - dva ključna hormona koje proizvodi štitasta žlezda. Deficit joda. Za optimalnu funkciju štitaste žlezde važan je svakodnevni adekvatan unos joda. Kada je unos joda nedovoljan, smanjeno je stvaranje hormona štitaste žlezde, što može da uzrokuje hipotirozu, strumu i moždana oštećenja. Nedostatak joda je najčešći pojedinačni, preventabilni uzrok mentalne zaostalosti i moždanog oštećenja dece u svetu. Bolesti usled nedostatka joda oštećuju psihomotorički rast i razvoj i značajan su zdravstveni problem u svetu zbog posledica na fertilitet, natalitet i neonatalni mortalitet. Prekomeran unos joda. Na drugom kraju spektra je prekomeran unos joda koji je takođe udružen sa autoimunom bolesti štitaste žlezde i njenom disfunkcijom. Upotreba joda u slučaju nuklearnih katastrofa. U nuklearnim katastrofama (Hirošima, Nagasaki, Černobilj, Fokušima), zbog velike količine radioaktivnog joda, između ostalih teških posledica ozračivanja, došlo je do ogromnog porasta broja obolelih od karcinoma štitaste žlezde, posebno u dečjem uzrastu, te se u tekstu navode mogućnosti prevencije prema preporukama Svetske zdravstvene organizacije.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.2298/MPNS1212489T
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 03.12.2012.

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