Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
kako citirati ovaj članak
podeli ovaj članak


  • citati u SCIndeksu: [1]
  • citati u CrossRef-u:0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[]
  • posete u poslednjih 30 dana:1
  • preuzimanja u poslednjih 30 dana:1


članak: 7 od 8  
Back povratak na rezultate
Cardiovascular adipobiology: A novel - Heart-associated adipose tissue in cardiovascular disease
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria

Ključne reči: adipokines; atherosclerosis; epicarial adipose tissue; neurotrophic factors; neuropeptides; periadventitial adipose tissue
(ne postoji na srpskom)
This article provides a conceptual framework for the possible role of (i) periadventitial adipose tissue, and (ii) epicardial adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Traditional concepts of atherogenesis are focused on luminal surface, where 'inside-out' inflammatory events trigger the extravasation of immune cells and the accumulation of lipids, smooth muscle cells and matrix components leading to atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, increasing evidence supports a new concept of an 'outside-in' responses, involving periadventitial adipose tissue, herein referred to as tunica adiposa, and epicardial adipose tissue, these two adipose loci functioning as secretory tissues. Thus, a paracrine signals originated from these tissues could be transmitted into both the coronary artery intima and the myocardium. The present review highlights the possibility for tunica adiposa and epicardial adipose tissue to play an important role in an 'outside-in' signaling in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy. In effect, adipose-targeted pharmacology and noninvasive measures might provide novel clinical insights into cardiovascular adipobiology. Data of adipose-derived adipokines, including neurotrophic factors and neuropeptides, are also presented, raising a hypothesis of neuroendocrine potential of adipose tissue; it may also be instrumental in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
Abe, T., Morgan, D.A., Gutterman, D.D. (1997) Protective role of nerve growth factor against postischemic dysfunction of sympathetic coronary innervation. Circulation, 95(1): 213-20
Aloe, L. (2004) Nerve growth factor, human skin ulcers and vascularization: Our experience. Prog Brain Res, 146: 515-22
Ambjørn, M., Asmussen, J.W., Lindstam, M., Gotfryd, K., Jacobsen, C., Penkowa, M., i dr. (2008) Metallothionein and a peptide modeled after metallothionein, EmtinB, induce neuronal differentiation and survival through binding to receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. J Neurochem, 104, str. 21-37
Baker, A.R., da Silva, N.F., Quinn, D.W., Harte, A.L., Pagano, D., Bonser, R.S., i dr. (2006) Human epicardial adipose tissue expresses a pathogenic profile of adipocytokines in patients with cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 5(1): 1
Beltowski, J., Jamroz-Wiśnewska, A., Widomska, S. (2008) Adiponectin and its role in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets, 8(1): 7
Boden, G., Duan, X., Homko, C., Molina, E.J., Song, W.W., Perez, O., i dr. (2008) Increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins and genes in adipose tissue of obese, insulin-resistant individuals. Diabetes, 57, str. 2438-2444
Brandes, R.P. (2007) The fatter the better?: Perivascular adipose tissue attenuates vascular contraction through different mechanisms. British Journal of Pharmacology, 151(3): 303
Brown, R.E., Imran, S.A., Ur, E., Wikinson, M. (2008) KiSS-1 mRNA in adipose tissue is regulated by sex hormones and food intake. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 281(1-2): 64
Cai, D., Holm, J.M., Duignan, I.J., Zheng, J., Xaymardan, M., Chin, A., i dr. (2006) BDNF-mediated enhancement of inflammation and injury in the aging heart. Physiol Genomics, 24:191-197
Chaldakov, G.N., Vankov, V.N. (1986) Morphological aspects of secretion in the arterial smooth muscle cell, with special reference to the Golgi complex and microtubular cytoskeleton. Atherosclerosis, 61(3): 175-92
Chaldakov, G.N., Stankulov, I.S., Fiore, M., Ghenev, P.I., Aloe, L. (2001) Nerve growth factor levels and mast cell distribution in human coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 159(1): 57-66
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Stankulov, I.S., Hristova, M., Antonelli, A., Manni, L., Ghenev, P.I., Angelucci, F., Aloe, L. (2001) NGF, BDNF, leptin, and mast cells in human coronary atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Arch Physiol Biochem, 109(4): 357-60
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Tonchev, A.B., Aloe, L. (2006) Adipopharmacology, a Novel Drug Discovery Approach: A Metabotrophic Perspective. Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 3(7): 503
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Ghenev, P.I., Stankulov, I.S., Aloe, L. (2000) Atherosclerotic lesions: Possible interactive involvement of intima adventitia and associated adipose tissue. Int Med J, 7, str. 43-49
Chaldakov, G.N., Aloe, L. (2002) Neurobiology and vascular biology integrated: Pleiotropic potentials of NGF in atherogenesis. www.athero.org., Commentaries
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Ghenev, P.I., Stankulov, I.S., Angelucci, F., Aloe, L. (2000) Conceptual novelities in atherogenesis: Smooth muscle cells, adventitia, and adipose tissue. Biomed Rev, 11: 63-67
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Tonchev, A.B., Dimitrov, D., Pancheva, R., Rancic, G. (2007) Homo obesus: A metabotrophin-deficient species: Pharmacology and nutrition insight. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 13(21): 2176
Chaldakov, G.N., Fantuzzi, G. (2006) Adipopharmacology of disease. Biomed Rev, 17, str. 1-128
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Ghenev, P.I., Sornelli, F., Tonchev, A.B., Aloe, L. (2008) Neural-immune-endocrine (NIE) interactions in vascular biology: Neurotrophins immune cells and tunica adipose. J EndoCardiol, 1: In press
Chaldakov, G.N., Tonchev, A.B., Stankulov, I.S., Ghenev, P.I., Fiore, M., Aloe, L., i dr. (2007) Periadventitial adipose tissue (tunica adiposa): Enemy or friend around?. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 131: 1766
Chaldakov, G.N., Stankulov, I.S., Aloe, L. (2001) Subepicardial adipose tissue in human coronary atherosclerosis: Another neglected phenomenon. Atherosclerosis, 154(1): 237-8
Chaldakov, G.N., Stankulov, I.S., Fiore, M., Hristova, M.G., Rančić, G., Ghenev, P.I., i dr. (2001) Adipoendocrinology and adipoparacrinology: Emerging fields of study on the adipose tissue. Biomed Rev, 12, str. 31-39
Chaldakov, G.N., Stankulov, I.S., Hristova, M., Ghenev, P.I. (2003) Adipobiology of disease: Adipokines and adipokine-targeted pharmacology. Curr Pharm Des, 9(12): 1023-31
Chaldakov, G.N., ur. (2007) Editorial [Hot Topic: The Adipobiology of Disease (Guest Editor: George N. Chaldakov)]. Immunology Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry, 7(2): 105
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Hristova, M.G., Aloe, L. (2003) Metabotrophic potential of neurotrophins:implication in obesity and related diseases?. Med Sci Monit, 9(10): HY19-21
Chaldakov, G.N., Fiore, M., Stankulov, I.S., Manni, L., Hristova, M.G., Antonelli, A., Ghenev, P.I., Aloe, L. (2004) Neurotrophin presence in human coronary atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome: A role for NGF and BDNF in cardiovascular disease?. Prog Brain Res, 146: 279-89
Chaowalit, N., Somers, V.K., Pellikka, P.A., Rihal, C.S., Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2007) Adipose tissue of atrial septum as a marker of coronary artery disease. Chest, 132(3): 817
Coope, A., Milanski, M., Araújo, E.P., Tambascia, M., Saad, M.J., Geloneze, B., Velloso, L.A. (2008) AdipoR1 mediates the anorexigenic and insulin/leptin-like actions of adiponectin in the hypothalamus. FEBS Letters, 582(10): 1471
Corsi, M.M., Dogliotti, G., Pedroni, F., Galliera, E., Malavazos, A.E., Villa, R., i dr. (2008) Adipocytokines in Down's syndrome, an atheroma-free model: Role of adiponectin. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, Jan 17; In press
Corsi, M.M., Dogliotti, G., Pedroni, F., Palazzi, E., Magni, P., Chiappelli, M., i dr. (2006) Plasma nerve growth factor (NGF) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and MCP-1) in young and adult subjects with Down syndrome: An interesting pathway. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 27, str. 773-778
Dashwood, M.R., Dooley, A., Shi-Wen, X., Abraham, D.J., Souza, D.S. (2007) Does periadventitial fat-derived nitric oxide play a role in improved saphenous vein graft patency in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery?. Journal of Vascular Research, 44(3): 175
de Ferranti, S., Mozaffarian, D. (2008) The perfect storm: Obesity, adipocyte dysfunction, and metabolic consequences. Clinical Chemistry, 54(6): 945
Dettman, R.W., Denetclaw, W., Ordahl, C.P., Bristow, J. (1998) Common epicardial origin of coronary vascular smooth muscle, perivascular fibroblasts, and intermyocardial fibroblasts in the avian heart. Dev Biol, 193(2): 169-81
Do, M.S., Nam, S.Y., Hong, S.E., Kim, K.W., Duncan, J.S., Beattie, J.H., Trayhurn, P. (2002) Metallothionein gene expression in human adipose tissue from lean and obese subjects. Horm Metab Res, 34(6): 348-51
Ejiri, J., Inoue, N., Kobayashi, S., Shiraki, R., Otsui, K., Honjo, T. (2005) Possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Circulation, 112(14): 2114
Fain, J. (2006) Release of interleukins and other inflammatory cytokines by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily due to the nonfat cells. Guy Hosp Rep, 74(10): 443
Fain, J.N., Sacks, H.S., Buehrer, B., Bahouth, S.W., Garrett, E., Wolf, R.Y., i dr. (2008) Identification of omentin mRNA in human epicardial adipose tissue: Comparison to omentin in subcutaneous, internal mammary artery periadventitial and visceral abdominal depots. Int J Obes, London, January 8; In press
Fantuzzi, G., Mazzone, T., ur. (2007) Nutrition and health: Adipose tissue and adipokines in health and disease. Tokowa, NJ: Humana Press
Fesüs, G., Dubrovska, G., Gorzelniak, K., Kluge, R., Huang, Y., Luft, F.C., i dr. (2007) Adiponectin is a novel humoral vasodilator. Cardiovascular Research, 75(4): 719
Frank, S., Stallmeyer, B., Kämpfer, H., Kolb, N., Pfeilschifter, J. (2000) Leptin enhances wound re-epithelialization and constitutes a direct function of leptin in skin repair. J Clin Invest, 106(4): 501-9
Galvez, B., de Castro, J., Herold, D., Dubrovska, G., Arribas, S., González, M.C., i dr. (2006) Perivascular adipose tissue and mesenteric vascular function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 26(6): 1297
Gálvez-Prieto, B., Bolbrinker, J., Stucchi, P., de Las, H.A.I., Merino, B., Arribas, S. (2008) Comparative expression analysis of the renin-angiotensin system components between white and brown perivascular adipose tissue. Journal of Endocrinology, 197(1): 55
Gao, Y.J., Takemori, K., Su, L.Y., An, W.S., Lu, C., Sharma, A.M., Lee, R.M. (2006) Perivascular adipose tissue promotes vasoconstriction: The role of superoxide anion. Cardiovascular Research, 71(2): 363
Gao, Y.J., Lu, C., Su, L.Y., Sharma, A.M., Lee, R.M. (2007) Modulation of vascular function by perivascular adipose tissue: The role of endothelium and hydrogen peroxide. British Journal of Pharmacology, 151(3): 323
Gao, Y.J. (2007) Dual modulation of vascular function by perivascular adipose tissue and its potential correlation with adiposity/lipoatrophy-related vascular dysfunction. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 13(21): 2185
Generini, S., Tuveri, M.A., Matucci, C.M., Mastinu, F., Manni, L., Aloe, L. (2004) Topical application of nerve growth factor in human diabetic foot ulcers. A study of three cases. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 112(9): 542-4
Gollasch, M., Dubrovska, G. (2004) Paracrine role for periadventitial adipose tissue in the regulation of arterial tone. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 25(12): 647-53
Gualillo, O., González-Juanatey, J.R., Lago, F. (2007) The emerging role of adipokines as mediators of cardiovascular function: Physiologic and clinical perspectives. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 17(8): 275
Guerre-Millo, M. (2008) Adiponectin: An update. Diabetes Metab, 34:12-18
Guilherme, A., Virbasius, J.V., Puri, V., Czech, M.P. (2008) Adipocyte dysfunctions linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 9(5): 367
Guzik, T.J., Marvar, P.J., Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, M., Korbut, R. (2007) Perivascular adipose tissue is a messenger of the brain-vessel axis: Role in vascular inflammation and dysfunction. J Physiol Pharmacol, 58, str. 591-610
Hansen-Algenstaedt, N., Algenstaedt, P., Schaefer, C., Hamann, A., Wolfram, L., Cingöz, G., i dr. (2006) Neural driven angiogenesis by overexpression of nerve growth factor. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 125(6): 637
Hasan, W., Zhang, R., Liu, M., Warn, J.D., Smith, P.G. (2000) Coordinate expression of NGF and alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA and protein in cutaneous wound tissue of developing and adult rats. Cell Tissue Res, 300(1): 97-109
Hausman, G.J., Barb, C.R., Dean, R.G. (2008) Patterns of gene expression in pig adipose tissue: Insulin-like growth factor system proteins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors, neurotrophic factors and other secreted factors. Domest Anim Endocrinol, February 12; In press
Hausman, G.J., Poulos, S.P., Richardson, R.L., Barb, C.R., Andacht, T., Kirk, H.C., i dr. (2006) Secreted proteins and genes in fetal and neonatal pig adipose tissue and stromal-vascular cells. Journal of Animal Science, 84(7): 1666
He, Z.Q., Liang, C., Wang, H., Wu, Z.G. (2008) Dysfunction of AQP7 in the periadventitial fat: A novel trigger of atherosclerosis. Medical Hypotheses, 70(1): 92
Hiromatsu, Y., Yang, D., Bednarczuk, T., Miyake, I., Nonaka, K., Inoue, Y. (2000) Cytokine profiles in eye muscle tissue and orbital fat tissue from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 85(3): 1194-9
Hoch, M., Eberle, A.N., Wagner, U., Bussmann, C., Peters, T., Peterli, R. (2007) Expression and Localization of Melanocortin-1 Receptor in Human Adipose Tissues of Severely Obese Patients. Obesity, 15(1): 40
Hristova, M., Aloe, L., Ghenev, P.I., Fiore, M., Chaldakov, G.N. (2001) Leptin and mast cells: A novel adipoimmune link. Turk J Med Sci, 31: 581-583
Huang, H., Park, P.H., Mcmullen, M.R., Nagy, L.E. (2008) Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, (Suppl 1): S50-53
Iacobellis, G., Barbaro, G. (2008) The double role of epicardial adipose tissue as pro- and anti-inflammatory organ. Horm Metab Res, Mar 13
Iacobellis, G., Corradi, D., Sharma, A.M. (2005) Epicardial adipose tissue: Anatomic, biomolecular and clinical relationships with the heart. Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine, 2(10): 536
Iacobellis, G., Assael, F., Ribaudo, M.C., Zappaterreno, A., Alessi, G., di Mario, U., Leonetti, F. (2003) Epicardial fat from echocardiography: A new method for visceral adipose tissue prediction. Obes Res, 11(2): 304-10
Imai, Y., Shindo, T., Maemura, K., Sata, M., Saito, Y., Kurihara, Y., Akishita, M., Osuga, J., Ishibashi, S., Tobe, K., Morita, H., Oh-Hashi, Y., Suzuki, T., Maekawa, H., Kangawa, K. (2002) Resistance to neointimal hyperplasia and fatty streak formation in mice with adrenomedullin overexpression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 22(8): 1310-5
Jamieson, J.D., Palade, G.E. (1964) Specific granules in atrial muscle cells. J Cell Biol, 23: 151-72
Jeon, J.H., Kim, K.Y., Kim, J.H., Baek, A., Chao, H., Lee, Y.H., i dr. (2007) A novel adipokine CTRP1 stimulates aldosterone production. FASEB Journal, 22(5): 1502
Jeong, J.W., Jeong, M.H., Yun, K.H., Oh, S.K., Park, E.M., Kim, Y.K., Rhee, S.J., Lee, E.M., Lee, J., Yoo, N.J., Kim, N.H., Park, J.C. (2007) Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and coronary artery disease. Circulation Journal, 71(4): 536
Karagiannides, I., Torres, D., Tseng, Y.H., Bowe, C., Carvalho, E., Espinoza, D., i dr. (2008) Substance p as a novel anti-obesity target. Gastroenterology, 134(3): 747
Kaye, D.M., Vaddadi, G., Gruskin, S.L., Du, X.J., Esler, M.D. (2000) Reduced myocardial nerve growth factor expression in human and experimental heart failure. Circ Res, 86(7): E80-4
Kitscher, U., Hartge, M., Hess, K., Foryst-Ludwig, A., Clemenz, M., Wabitsch, M., i dr. (2008) T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue: A primary event in adipose tissue inflammation and the development of obesity-mediated insulin resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, April 17; In press
Knerr, I., Schirl, C., Horbach, T., Stuppy, A., Carbon, R., Rascher, W., Dötsch, J. (2005) Maturation of the expression of adrenomedullin, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthases in adipose tissues from childhood to adulthood. Int J Obes (Lond), 29(3): 275-80
Kos, K., Harte, A.L., James, S., Snead, D.R., O'Hare, J.P., Mcternan, P.G., Kumar, S. (2007) Secretion of neuropeptide Y in human adipose tissue and its role in maintenance of adipose tissue mass. AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism, 293(5): E1335
Kosacka, J., Nowicki, M., Kacza, J., Borlak, J., Engele, J., Spanel-Borowski, K. (2006) Adipocyte-derived angiopoietin-1 supports neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis of sensory neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 83(7): 1160
Kreusser, M.M., Buss, S.J., Krebs, J., Kinscherf, R., Metz, J., Katus, H.A., i dr. (2008) Differential expression of cardiac neurotrophic factors and sympathetic nerve ending abnormalities within the failing heart. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 44(2): 380
Lazarovici, P., Marcinkiewicz, C., Lelkes, P.I. (2006) Cross talk between the cardiovascular and nervous systems: Neurotrophic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenic effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) - implications in drug development. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12(21): 2609
Li, Y., Jiang, C., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Shibahara, S., Takahashi, K. (2007) Adrenomedullin is a novel adipokine: Adrenomedullin in adipocytes and adipose tissues. Peptides, 28(5): 1129
Linscheid, P., Seboek, D., Nylen, E.S., Langer, I., Schlatter, M., Becker, K.L., Keller, U., Müller, B. (2003) In vitro and in vivo calcitonin I gene expression in parenchymal cells: A novel product of human adipose tissue. Endocrinology, 144(12): 5578-84
Lumeng, C.N., Deyoung, S.M., Bodzin, J.L., Saltiel, A.R. (2007) Increased inflammatory properties of adipose tissue macrophages recruited during diet-induced obesity. Diabetes, 56(1): 16
Maiellaro, K., Taylor, W.R. (2007) The role of the adventitia in vascular inflammation. Cardiovascular Research, 75(4): 640
Malinowski, M., Deja, M.A., Golba, K.S., Roleder, T., Biernat, J., Woś, S. (2008) Perivascular tissue of internal thoracic artery releases potent nitric oxide and prostacyclin-independent anticontractile factor. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 33(2): 225
Manni, L., di Fausto, V., Fiore, M., Aloe, L. (2008) Repeated restraint and nerve growth factor administration in male and female mice: Effect on sympathetic and cardiovascular mediators of the stress response. Current Neurovascular Research, 5(1): 1
Marchington, J.M., Mattacks, C.A., Pond, C.M. (1989) Adipose tissue in the mammalian heart and pericardium: Structure, foetal development and biochemical properties. Comp Biochem Physiol B, 94(2): 225-32
Micera, A., Vigneti, E., Pickholtz, D., Reich, R., Pappo, O., Bonini, S., Maquart, F.X., Aloe, L., Levi, F. (2001) Nerve growth factor displays stimulatory effects on human skin and lung fibroblasts, demonstrating a direct role for this factor in tissue repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 98(11): 6162-7
Michel, J.B., Thaunat, O., Houard, X., Meilhac, O., Caligiuri, G., Nicoletti, A. (2007) Topological determinants and consequences of adventitial responses to arterial wall injury. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 27(6): 1259
Murad, A., Nath, A.K., Cha, S., Demir, E., Flores-Jaime,, Sierra-Rocío, M. (2003) Leptin is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of wound healing. FASEB J, 17(13): 1895-7
Nicolaysen, A., Gammelsaeter, R., Storm-Mathisen, J., Gundersen, V., Iversen, P.O. (2007) The components required for amino acid neurotransmitter signaling are present in adipose tissues. Journal of Lipid Research, 48(10): 2123
Nozaki, M., Fukuhara, A., Segawa, K., Okuno, Y., Abe, M., Hosogai, N., i dr. (2007) Nitric oxide dysregulates adipocytokine expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 364(1): 33
Pond, C.M. (2005) Adipose tissue and the immune system. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 73(1): 17-30
Rančić, G., Petrović, A., Sekulović-Stefanović, L., Bojanić, V., Ghenev, P.I. (2007) Adipotopography: TOFI versus TOTI, or a hidden Homo obesus. u: International Symposium Adipobiology and Adipopharmacology, 20. October, Varna, Bulgaria, Abstract, pp 13-14
Reifenberger, M.S., Trunk, J.R., Newcomer, S.C., Booth, F.W., Laughlin, M.H. (2007) Perivascular fat alters reactivity of coronary artery: Effects of diet and exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39, str. 2125-2134
Rivera, G., Bocanegra-García, V., Galiano, S., i dr. (2008) Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists: A new perspective for the pharmacologic treatment of obesity. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15(10): 1025
Rolfe, B.E., Stamatiou, S., World, C.J., Brown, L., Thomas, A.C., Bingley, J.A., Worth, N.F., Campbell, J.H. (2003) Leukaemia inhibitory factor retards the progression of atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res, 58(1): 222-30
Rosito, G.A., Massaro, J.M., Hoffmann, U., i dr. (2008) Pericardial fat, visceral abdominal fat, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and vascular calcification in a community-based sample: The Framingham heart study. Circulation, 117(5): 605
Ross, R. (1999) Atherosclerosis: An inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med, 340(2): 115-26
Sacks, H.S., Fain, J.N. (2007) Human epicardial adipose tissue: A review. American Heart Journal, 153(6): 907
Sasano, H., Suzuki, T., Miki, Y., i dr. (2008) Intracrinology of estrogens and androgens in breast carcinoma. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 108(3-5): 181
Schäffler, A., Schölmerich, J., Buechler, C. (2006) The role of adipotrophins and the clinical importance of a potential hypothalamic-pituitaryadipose axis. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab, 2(7): 374
Schäffler, A., Schölmerich, J., Buechler, C. (2005) Hypothesis paper: Brain talks with fat - evidence for a hypothalamic-pituitary-adipose axis?. Neuropeptides, 39(4): 363
Seboek, D., Linscheid, P., Zulewski, H., Langer, I., Christ-Mirjam,, Keller, U., Müller, B. (2004) Somatostatin is expressed and secreted by human adipose tissue upon infection and inflammation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89(10): 4833-9
Sharma, V., McNeill, J.H. (2006) The etiology of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome, part four: The systemic perspective: The role of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, and the challenge of integration. Current Vascular Pharmacology, 4(4): 349
Shimomura, I., Funahashi, T., Matsuzawa, Y. (2006) Metabolic syndrome, adiponectin and fat ROS. Biomed Rev, 17, 1-10
Sindelar, D.K., Mystkowski, P., Marsh, D.J., Palmiter, R.D., Schwartz, M.W. (2002) Attenuation of diabetic hyperphagia in neuropeptide Y: Deficient mice. Diabetes, 51(3): 778-83
Sornelli, F., Fiore, M., Chaldakov, G.N., i dr. (2007) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: A new adipokine. Biomed Rev, 18, 65-68
Stankulov, I.S., Aloe, L., Ghenev, P.I. (2002) PAAT: A path to atherosclerosis?. Biomed Rev, 13, 63-65
Stern, N., Marcus, Y. (2006) Perivascular fat: Innocent bystander or active player in vascular disease?. Journal of the CardioMetabolic Syndrome, 1(2): 115
Swifka, J., Weiss, J., Addicks, K., Eckel, J., Rösen, P. (2008) Epicardial fat from guinea pig: A model to study the paracrine network of interactions between epicardial fat and myocardium?. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, February 20; In press
Thalmann, S., Meier, C.A. (2007) Local adipose tissue depots as cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular Research, 75(4): 690
Toma, I., Sax, B., Nagy, A., Entz, L., Rusvai, M., Juhász-Nagy, A., i dr. (2006) Intrapericardial angiotensin II stimulates endothelin-1 and atrial natriuretic peptide formation of the in situ dog heart. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 231, str. 847-851
Tonchev, A.B. (2007) Fatty acids as regulators of hippocampal neurogenesis: The case of GPR-40. Biomed Rev, 18, str. 69-74
Töre, F., Tonchev, A.B., Fiore, M., Tuncel, N., Atanassova, P., Aloe, L., i dr. (2007) From adipose tissue protein secretion to adipopharmacology of disease. Immunology Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Immunology Endocrine & Metabolic Agents), 7(2): 149
Trayhurn, P. (2005) Endocrine and signaling role of adipose tissue: New perspective on tat. Acta physiol. Scand, 184, str. 285-293
Trayhurn, P., Wang, B., Wood, I.S. (2008) Hypoxia in adipose tissue: A basis for the dysregulation of tissue function in obesity?. Br J Nutr, 96, str. 1-9
Trayhurn, P., Duncan, J.S., Wood, A.M., Beattie, J.H. (2000) Metallothionein gene expression and secretion in white adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 279(6): R2329-35
Valassi, E., Scacchi, M., Cavagnini, F. (2008) Neuroendocrine control of food intake. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 18(2): 158
van der Loo, B., Martin, J.F. (1997) The adventitia, endothelium and atherosclerosis. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp, 17(5): 280-8
Vega, D., Buja, L.M., Madjid, M., Burke, A., Naghavi, M., Willerson, J.T., i dr. (2007) The role of periadventitial fat in atherosclerosis: An adipose subset with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 131, str. 481-487
Villoslada, P., Genain, C.P. (2004) Role of nerve growth factor and other trophic factors in brain inflammation. Prog Brain Res, 146: 403-14
Vitseva, O.I., Tanriverdi, K., Tchkonia, T.T., i dr. (2008) Inducible toll-like receptor and nf-îºb regulatory pathway expression in human adipose tissue. Obesity, 16(5): 932
Voisey, J., van Daal, A. (2002) Agouti: From mouse to man, from skin to fat. Pigment Cell Res, 15(1): 10-8
Wang, B., Wood, I.S., Trayhurn, P. (2008) PCR arrays identify metallothionein-3 as a highly hypoxia-inducible gene in human adipocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 368(1): 88
Wang, P., Mariman, E., Renes, J., Keijer, J. (2008) The secretory function of adipocytes in the physiology of white adipose tissue. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 216(1): 3
Wilcox, J.N., Scott, N.A. (1996) Potential role of the adventitia in arteritis and atherosclerosis. Int J Cardiol, 54 Suppl: S21-35
Xu, A., Lam, M.C., Chan, K.W., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Hoo, R.L.C., Xu, J.Y., Chen, B., Chow, W., Tso, A.W.K., Lam, K.S.L. (2005) Angiopoietin-like protein 4 decreases blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance but induces hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 102(17): 6086-91
Yang, Z., Montani, J.P. (2007) Emerging roles of perivascular adipose tissue in regulation of vascular functions. Immunology Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Immunology Endocrine & Metabolic Agents), 7(2): 137
Yudkin, J.S., Eringa, E., Stehouwer, C.D.A. (2005) 'Vasocrine' signalling from perivascular fat: A mechanism linking insulin resistance to vascular disease. Lancet, 365(9473): 1817-20
Zannettino, A.C., Paton, S., Arthur, A., i dr. (2008) Multipotential human adipose-derived stromal stem cells exhibit a perivascular phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 214(2): 413

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: uvodnik
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 14.01.2009.

Povezani članci