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2019, vol. 58, iss. 82, pp. 119-137
The emergence and development of smart cites from the perspective of criminological and crime policy
Univeristy of Niš, Faculty of Law

emailkosticm@prafak.ni.ac.rs
Project:
Protection of human and minority rights in the European legal area (MESTD - 179046)

Keywords: smart city; delinquency; environmental criminology; Chicago school of criminology; delinquent territory; population
Abstract
The term "smart city" was first used in the 1990s within the framework of applying innovative technologies as part of modern urban infrastructure. Nowadays, the concept "smart city" pertains to the application of intelligent, interconnected and instrumentalized information-communication systems in the field of urban planning. European cities are insufficiently sustainable, inclusive or productive for the needs of modern times. Smart cities of the present and the future need to address serious social, economic and environmental issues related to social life and housing, infrastructure, organization of public transport, utility services, etc. The policy of developing "smart cities" should be aimed at precluding difficulties rather than finding ways to cope with the complexities of urban living. In Europe, the major challenges encountered in urban areas are: the aging of the European population, the integration of migrants, social exclusion, (un)sustainability of the natural environment, unemployment, delinquency, and underdeveloped local economy. Human or social ecology describes diverse social relations among people who share the same habitat or local territory, whereby these relations are clearly correlated with the nature of the immediate environment. It is an interdisciplinary study of the social structure in relation to the local environment. In the late 1990s, sociologists introduced ecology into their studies on social development and evolution of human institutions. Thus, they contributed to incorporating this concept in the field of social sciences. In their studies on environmental criminology, the representatives of the Chicago school of criminology argued that the delinquency and crime rate of both juveniles and adults is closely correlated with idleness of adolescents and younger adults, child mortality, tuberculosis, mental disorders and other factors. Considering the fact that the development of "smart cities" does not exclude the occurrence of delinquency and crime, it is necessary to consider the concept of crime prevention which would be primarily aimed at precluding criminal behavior within the community and increasing public security.
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About

article language: Serbian
document type: Original Scientific Paper
DOI: 10.5937/zrpfni1982119K
published in SCIndeks: 08/06/2019
peer review method: double-blind
Creative Commons License 4.0

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