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2022, vol. 67, br. 2, str. 153-160
Kadmijum i olovo u organskom i konvencionalnom korenastom i krtolastom povrću na tržištu u Srbiji
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Srbija

e-adresajaca@agrif.bg.ac.rs
Projekat:
Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije (institucija: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet) (MPNTR - 451-03-68/2020-14/200116)

Ključne reči: povrće; kadmijum; olovo
Sažetak
Organska poljoprivreda i konzumiranje organske hrane u svetu su u stalnom porastu prethodnih decenija. Cilj istraživanja je bio da se odrede i uporede koncentracije kadmijuma (Cd) i olova (Pb) u organskom i konvencionalnom povrću, dostupnom na tržištu u Srbiji. Uzorci korenastog i krtolastog povrća - krompira, mrkve i cvekle sakupljeni su na dve zelene pijace i četiri supermarketa na teritoriji grada Beograda. Concentracije Cd i Pb u svežoj masi merene su metodom atomske apsorpcione spektrofotometrije (AAS). Srednje vrednosti koncentracija Cd i Pb dva tipa povrća su poređene t-testom. Koncentracije Cd i Pb u oba tipa povrća bile su niže od maksimalno dozvoljenih. Srednja vrednost Cd bila je značajno niža u organskom nego u konvencionalnom krompiru (0,021 mg kg-1 odnosno 0,037 mg kg-1 ). Suprotni rezultati su dobijeni za mrkvu, koncentracija Cd je bila viša u organskoj mrkvi, ali razlika između dva tipa nije bila značajna, kao ni za cveklu. Rezultati su ukazali na niži nivo Pb u organskom krompiru i cvekli, i njegov viši nivo u organskoj mrkvi, ali razlike između dva tipa nisu bile značajne. Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata ne može se izvesti nedvosmislen zaključak, ali rezultati ukazuju na niži ili sličan nivo oba metala u organskom u odnosu na konvencionalno povrće.

Introduction

Organic agriculture is currently practiced in 187 countries, and the organic share of total agricultural land is 1.5% globally (Willer et al., 2021). Over the past decade, global organic food and drink sales increased from 54.9 to 106.4 billion US dollars (Sahota, 2011; Sahota, 2021). A remarkable increase in the organic market is associated with consumers' demand for organic food. Numerous studies have been carried out to evaluate consumers' practices and food choice motives. Organic food consumers are highly motivated by the environment, ethics and health aspects (Kesse-Guyot et al., 2013). In addition, they are relatively highly educated and more physically active than other food consumer groups (Kesse-Guyot et al., 2013). Organic product consumption is also associated with specific diet characteristics, including more fruits and vegetables (Eisinger-Watzl et al., 2015). Studies conducted in Serbia indicated that organic food consumers are motivated to buy organic food mostly by health aspects and the support to organic producers (Vlahović and Šojić, 2016; Vehapi, 2015).

Demand for organically grown vegetables has also increased due to consumers' interest in food safety. Although the consumption of vegetables provides essential nutrients for humans, heavy metal contamination of vegetables causes a great concern regarding human health. An increased level of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in vegetables has been reported in China (Huang et al., 2014), India (Gupta et al., 2008; Sharma et al., 2008), and other countries.

Cd and Pb concentrations in crops vary, with leafy and root vegetables generally having higher concentrations than fruits or seeds. The source of contamination of vegetables with Cd and Pb can be soil, water or air (Elgallal et al., 2016; El-Kady and Abdel-Wahhab, 2018) Chen et al. (2013) showed that the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizers could be a source of heavy metals in soil. Also, a long-term application of Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers can increase Cd concentrations in vegetative and also reproductive plant parts (Grant et al., 2010). However, post-harvest vegetable contamination with heavy metals during transport, storage and marketing has also been shown (Kassouf et al., 2013). High exposure to these metals has negative effects on human health. Thus the excess Cd can damage kidneys, while the excess Pb can affect the neurodevelopment in children (Satarug, 2018; Gundacker et al., 2021).

Available data on Cd and Pb in organic and conventional vegetables are often controversial. While synthetic agrochemicals are much lower in organic than in conventional fruits and vegetables, usually, there is no difference between them in environmental pollutants such as heavy metals. It is generally accepted that they cannot be avoided through organic farming practices (see review by Magkos et al., 2006). Based on an assessment of Cd and Pb in a variety of organically produced foodstuffs available in the Greek market Karavoltsos et al. (2008), suggested that the majority of certified organic products may have a lower level of Cd and Pb.

According to the author's best knowledge, there is no available data on Cd and Pb in organic vegetables in Serbia. This study aimed to compare concentrations of Cd and Pb in commonly consumed root and tuber vegetables in Serbia, including potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), carrot (Daucus corota L.) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) from the Serbian market.

Material and methods

The collection and preparation of samples

Samples of edible parts of commonly consumed root and tuber vegetables, including organic and conventional potatoes, carrots and beetroots, were collected in March 2016 from two green markets and four supermarkets located in the territory of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. All available organic products originated from different producers, and the same number of samples of conventional products was collected. Samples of both organic and conventional vegetables were collected as follows: five potato samples, five carrot samples, and four beetroot samples. All collected organic vegetables were labeled with a national symbol for organic products, or an organic certificate was available.

All samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and then rinsed with deionized water. Afterwards, samples were placed on the cellulose paper to remove excess water. Each sample consisted of three roots or tubers. Samples were peeled, chopped into small pieces, and ground in a high-speed blender. In total, 14 samples of each organic and conventional vegetable were prepared.

The digestion of samples and analyses

Samples of 1 g of fresh weight were digested with 7 ml of HNO3 + 2 ml of H2O2 in a microwave oven (Ethos EZ, Milestone). After digestion, samples were transferred to 50-ml flasks, and deionized water was added. The concentration of cadmium and lead was determined by AAS (GBC SensAA).

Results and discussion

In the present study, vegetables were selected based on the edible part, root or tuber. The number of samples was determined based on the availability of organic vegetables at that moment. According to the Serbian Regulation and Commission Regulation (EU) 2021/1323, the maximum level of Cd in potatoes and carrots is 0.10 mg kg-1 fresh weight, and for beetroots, it is 0.06 mg kg-1 fresh weight. According to the Serbian Regulation and Commission Regulation (EU) 2021/1317, the maximum level of Pb in root and tuber vegetables is 0.10 mg kg-1 fresh weight.

Although Pajević et al. (2018) recently reported both Cd and Pb concentrations above the maximum level by Serbian and EU legislations in potatoes, carrots and beetroots, in the present study, this was not the case (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3).

Table 1. Cd and Pb concentrations in commercially available organic and conventional potatoes.

Sample # Cd (mg kg-1 FW) Pb (mg kg-1 FW)
Organic Conventional Organic Conventional
1 0.014 0.019 0.063 0.100
2 0.019 0.032 0.100 0.097
3 0.021 0.047 0.027 0.066
4 0.030 0.057 0.064 0.069
5 0.024 0.030 0.024 0.049
Mean 0.021 0.037 0.056 0.076
Median 0.021 0.032 0.063 0.069
t-test * ns

*indicates a significant difference (p<0.05); ns – not significant; # – number.

Table 2. Cd and Pb concentrations in commercially available organic and conventional carrots.

Sample # Cd (mg kg-1 FW) Pb (mg kg-1 FW)
Organic Conventional Organic Conventional
1 0.002 0.003 0.028 0.009
2 0.003 0.005 0.010 0.010
3 0.021 0.002 0.028 0.013
4 0.002 0.002 0.012 0.012
5 0.002 0.003 0.013 0.009
Mean 0.006 0.003 0.018 0.010
Median 0.002 0.002 0.013 0.009
t-test ns ns

*indicates a significant difference (p<0.05); ns – not significant; # – number.

Table 3. Cd and Pb concentrations in commercially available organic and conventional beetroots.

Sample # Cd (mg kg-1 FW) Pb (mg kg-1 FW)
Organic Conventional Organic Conventional
1 0.003 0.005 0.016 0.017
2 0.007 0.006 0.018 0.022
3 0.004 0.004 0.013 0.014
4 0.002 0.003 0.010 0.018
Mean 0.004 0.004 0.014 0.017
Median 0.003 0.004 0.014 0.017
ns ns

* indicates a significant difference (p<0.05); ns – not significant; # – number.

Based on mean values, Cd and Pb concentrations varied considerably between examined vegetables. While potatoes had the highest level of both metals, the means for carrots and beetroots were similar.

In organic potatoes, the Cd level ranged from 0.014 to 0.030 mg kg-1, whilst in conventional potatoes, the span was from 0.019 to 0.057 mg kg-1. The t-test showed that the mean Cd concentration was significantly lower in organic than in conventional potatoes (0.021 mg kg-1 and 0.037 mg kg-1, respectively) (p<0.05) (Table 1). This is in accordance with results by Hadayat et al. (2018), who evaluated metals in organic and conventional potatoes collected from supermarkets in Florida, USA. On the other hand, the mean Cd concentration in carrots was 2-fold higher in the organic than in the conventional type (0.006 and 0.003 mg kg-1, respectively), but the difference was not significant (Table 2), whilst in both types of beetroots, it was 0.004 mg kg-1 (Table 3).

A meta-analysis performed by Hoefkens et al. (2009) also indicated that the Cd level was significantly lower in organic than in conventional potatoes, whilst the opposite was for carrots. However Hadayat et al. (2018), reported much lower Cd concentrations in organic than in conventional carrots, whilst no differences between the two were observed in the Czech Republic by Krejčová et al. (2016).

In the present study, Pb concentrations in organic and conventional potatoes ranged from 0.024 to 1.00 mgkg-1, and from 0.049 to 1.00 mg kg-1, respectively (Table 1). Although the mean Pb concentration in organic potatoes was lower than in the conventional type (0.056 and 0.076 mg kg-1, respectively), the difference between them was not significant (p<0.05). In organic carrots, Pb had a wider span than in the conventional type, ranging from 0.010 to 0.028 mg kg-1, and from 0.009 to 0.013 mg kg-1, respectively, and the mean Pb concentration was higher in the organic than in the conventional type (0.018 and 0.010 mg kg-1, respectively) (Table 2). These results are supported by Hoefkens et al. (2009), who reported much lower Pb concentrations in organic potatoes, but those were higher in organic carrots in comparison to the conventional type. Results by Malmauret et al. (2002) also indicated the Pb level in organic carrots that exceeded the maximum level in France. On the other hand, in the present study, the mean Pb concentration in beetroots was slightly higher in the conventional than in the organic type (0.017 and 0.014 mg kg-1, respectively). Differences between organic and conventional carrots and beetroots in the mean Pb concentration were not significant (p<0.05) (Table 2 and Table 3). Similar results for carrots were reported by Krejčová et al. (2016). In addition, a recent study by Cámara-Martos et al. (2021) indicated no differences in heavy metals between organic and conventional Brassicaceae vegetables.

Conclusion

Concentrations of Cd and Pb in organic and conventional potatoes, carrots and beetroots were below the maximum level determined by the Serbian and the EU Regulations. Obtained results are not conclusive, but they indicate a lower or similar concentration of both metals in organic vegetables in comparison to conventional types. Further research with a large number of samples is needed to evaluate the quality of organic vegetables in terms of toxic metals.

Dodatak

Acknowledgements

This work is a result of research within the framework of the contract for the realization and financing of scientific research in 2022 between the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, contract registration number: 451-03-68/2022-14/200116.

References

Cámara-Martos, F., Sevillano-Morales, J., Rubio-Pedraza, L., Bonilla-Herrera, J., & de Haro-Bailón, A. (2021). Comparative Effects of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on Trace Elements Contents in Vegetable Brassicaceae: Risk Assessment. Applied Sciences (Basel), 11(2), 707. [Crossref]
Chen, Y., Hu, W., Huang, B., Weindorf, D.C., Rajan, N., Liu, X., & Niedermann, S. (2013). Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 98, 324-330. [Crossref]
Eisinger-Watzl, M., Wittig, F., Heuer, T., & Hoffmann, I. (2015). Customers purchasing organic food: Do they live healthier? Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 5, 2347-5641. [Crossref]
El-Kady, A.A., & Abdel-Wahhab, M.A. (2018). Occurrence of trace metals in foodstuffs and their health impact. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 75, 36-45. [Crossref]
Elgallal, M., Fletcher, L., & Evans, B. (2016). Assessment of potential risks associated with chemicals in wastewater used for irrigation in arid and semiarid zones: A review. Agricultural Water Management, 177, 419-431. [Crossref]
Grant, C.A., Monreal, M.A., Irvine, R.B., Mohr, R.M., Mclaren, D.L., & Khakbazan, M. (2010). Preceding crop and phosphorus fertilization affect cadmium and zinc concentration of flaxseed under conventional and reduced tillage. Plant and Soil, 333(1-2), 337-350. [Crossref]
Gundacker, C., Forsthuber, M., Szigeti, T., Kakucs, R., Mustieles, V., Fernandez, M.F., Bengtsen, E., Vogel, U., Sørig, H.K., & Thoustrup, S.A. (2021). Lead (Pb) and neurodevelopment: A review on exposure and biomarkers of effect (BDNF, HDL) and susceptibility. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 238, 113855. [Crossref]
Gupta, N., Khan, D.K., & Santra, S.C. (2008). An Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Wastewater-Irrigated Areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 80(2), 115-118. [Crossref]
Hadayat, N., de Oliveira, L.M., da Silva, E., Han, L., Hussain, M., Liu, X., & Ma, L.Q. (2018). Assessment of trace metals in five most-consumed vegetables in the US: Conventional vs. organic. Environmental Pollution, 243, 292-300. [Crossref]
Hoefkens, C., Vandekinderen, I., de Meulenaer, B., Devlieghere, F., Baert, K., Sioen, I., de Henauw, S., Verbeke, W., & Van, C.J. (2009). A literature-based comparison of nutrient and contaminant contents between organic and conventional vegetables and potatoes. British Food Journal, 111(10), 1078-1097. [Crossref]
Huang, Z., Pan, X.D., Wu, P.G., Han, J.L., & Chen, Q. (2014). Heavy metals in vegetables and the health risk to population in Zhejiang, China. Food Control, 36(1), 248-252. [Crossref]
Karavoltsos, S., Sakellari, A., Dassenakis, M., & Scoullos, M. (2008). Cadmium and lead in organically produced foodstuffs from the Greek market. Food Chemistry, 106(2), 843-851. [Crossref]
Kassouf, A., Chebib, H., Lebbos, N., & Ouaini, R. (2013). Migration of iron, lead, cadmium and tin from tinplate-coated cans into chickpeas. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, 30(11), 1987-1992. [Crossref]
Kesse-Guyot, E., Péneau, S., Méjean, C., de Edelenyi, F.S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., & Lairon, D. (2013). Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study. PLoS One, 8(10), e76998. [Crossref]
Krejčová, A., Návesník, J., Jičínská, J., & Černohorský, T. (2016). An elemental analysis of conventionally, organically and self-grown carrots. Food Chemistry, 192, 242-249. [Crossref]
Kumar, S.R., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F.M. (2008). Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urgan India: A case study in Varanasi. Environmental Pollution, 154, 254-263. [Crossref]
Magkos, F., Arvaniti, F., & Zampelas, A. (2006). Organic Food: Buying More Safety or Just Peace of Mind? A Critical Review of the Literature. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(1), 23-56. [Crossref]
Malmauret, L., Parent-Massin, D., Hardy, J.L., & Verger, P. (2002). Contaminants in organic and conventional foodstuffs in France. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19(6), 524-532. [Crossref]
Pajević, S., Arsenov, D., Nikolić, N., Borišev, M., Orčić, D., Župunski, M., & Mimica-Dukić, N. (2018). Heavy metal accumulation in vegetable species and health risk assessment in Serbia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(8), 459. [Crossref]
Sahota, A. (2011). The global market for organic food & drink. In: H. Willer, & et al, (Ed.). The world of organic agriculture: Statistics and emerging trends 2011. (pp. 61-66). Bonn: IFOAM & Frick & FiBL.
Sahota, A. (2021). The global market for organic food & drink. In: H. Willer, & et al, (Ed.). The world of organic agriculture: Statistics and emerging trends 2021. (pp. 136-139). Bonn: Frick & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) & IFOAM-Organics International.
Satarug, S. (2018). Dietary cadmium intake and its effects on kidneys. Toxics, 6, 15.
Vehapi, S. (2015). Istraživanje motiva potrošača koji utiču na kupovinu organske hrane u Srbiji. Ekonomske teme, 53, 105-121.
Vlahović, B., & Šojić, S. (2016). Istraživanje stavova potrošača o organskim poljoprivredno-prehrambenim proizvodima i njihovim brendovima. Agroekonomika, 70, 33-46.
Willer, H., Meier, C., Schlatter, B., Dietemann, L., Kemper, L., & Travniček, J. (2021). The world of organic agriculture 2021: Summary. In: H. Willer, & et al, (Ed.). The world of organic agriculture: Statistics and emerging trends 2021. (pp. 20-30). Bonn: Frick & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) & IFOAM-Organics International.
Reference
Cámara-Martos, F., Sevillano-Morales, J., Rubio-Pedraza, L., Bonilla-Herrera, J., de Haro-Bailón, A. (2021) Comparative Effects of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on Trace Elements Contents in Vegetable Brassicaceae: Risk Assessment. Applied Sciences, 11(2): 707
Chen, Y., Hu, W., Huang, B., Weindorf, D.C., Rajan, N., Liu, X., Niedermann, S. (2013) Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 98: 324-330
Eisinger-Watzl, M., Wittig, F., Heuer, T., Hoffmann, I. (2015) Customers purchasing organic food: Do they live healthier?: Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 5, 2347-5641
Elgallal, M., Fletcher, L., Evans, B. (2016) Assessment of potential risks associated with chemicals in wastewater used for irrigation in arid and semiarid zones: A review. Agricultural Water Management, 177: 419-431
El-Kady, A.A., Abdel-Wahhab, M.A. (2018) Occurrence of trace metals in foodstuffs and their health impact. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 75: 36-45
Grant, C.A., Monreal, M.A., Irvine, R.B., Mohr, R.M., Mclaren, D.L., Khakbazan, M. (2010) Preceding crop and phosphorus fertilization affect cadmium and zinc concentration of flaxseed under conventional and reduced tillage. Plant and Soil, 333(1-2): 337-350
Gundacker, C., Forsthuber, M., Szigeti, T., Kakucs, R., Mustieles, V., Fernandez, M.F., Bengtsen, E., Vogel, U., Sørig, H.K., Thoustrup, S.A. (2021) Lead (Pb) and neurodevelopment: A review on exposure and biomarkers of effect (BDNF, HDL) and susceptibility. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 238: 113855
Gupta, N., Khan, D.K., Santra, S.C. (2008) An Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Wastewater-Irrigated Areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 80(2): 115-118
Hadayat, N., de Oliveira, L.M., da Silva, E., Han, L., Hussain, M., Liu, X., Ma, L.Q. (2018) Assessment of trace metals in five most-consumed vegetables in the US: Conventional vs. organic. Environmental Pollution, 243: 292-300
Hoefkens, C., Vandekinderen, I., de Meulenaer, B., Devlieghere, F., Baert, K., Sioen, I., de Henauw, S., Verbeke, W., Van, C.J. (2009) A literature-based comparison of nutrient and contaminant contents between organic and conventional vegetables and potatoes. British Food Journal, 111(10): 1078-1097
Huang, Z., Pan, X.D., Wu, P.G., Han, J.L., Chen, Q. (2014) Heavy metals in vegetables and the health risk to population in Zhejiang, China. Food Control, 36(1): 248-252
Karavoltsos, S., Sakellari, A., Dassenakis, M., Scoullos, M. (2008) Cadmium and lead in organically produced foodstuffs from the Greek market. Food Chemistry, 106(2): 843-851
Kassouf, A., Chebib, H., Lebbos, N., Ouaini, R. (2013) Migration of iron, lead, cadmium and tin from tinplate-coated cans into chickpeas. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 30(11): 1987-1992
Kesse-Guyot, E., Péneau, S., Méjean, C., de Edelenyi, F.S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Lairon, D. (2013) Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study. PLoS ONE, 8(10): e76998
Krejčová, A., Návesník, J., Jičínská, J., Černohorský, T. (2016) An elemental analysis of conventionally, organically and self-grown carrots. Food Chemistry, 192: 242-249
Kumar, S.R., Agrawal, M., Marshall, F.M. (2008) Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urgan India: A case study in Varanasi. Environmental Pollution, 154, 254-263
Magkos, F., Arvaniti, F., Zampelas, A. (2006) Organic Food: Buying More Safety or Just Peace of Mind?: A Critical Review of the Literature. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(1): 23-56
Malmauret, L., Parent-Massin, D., Hardy, J.L., Verger, P. (2002) Contaminants in organic and conventional foodstuffs in France. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19(6): 524-532
Pajević, S., Arsenov, D., Nikolić, N., Borišev, M., Orčić, D., Župunski, M., Mimica-Dukić, N. (2018) Heavy metal accumulation in vegetable species and health risk assessment in Serbia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(8): 459
Sahota, A. (2011) The global market for organic food & drink. u: Willer H., et al. [ur.] The world of organic agriculture. Statistics and emerging trends 2011, Bonn: IFOAM, 61-66, FiBL-IFOAM report
Sahota, A. (2021) The global market for organic food & drink. u: Willer H., et al. [ur.] The world of organic agriculture. Statistics and emerging trends 2021, Bonn: Frick, 136-139
Satarug, S. (2018) Dietary cadmium intake and its effects on kidneys. Toxics, 6, 15
Vehapi, S. (2015) Istraživanje motiva potrošača koji utiču na kupovinu organske hrane u Srbiji. Ekonomske teme, 53, 105-121
Vlahović, B., Šojić, S. (2016) Istraživanje stavova potrošača o organskim poljoprivrednoprehrambenim proizvodima i njihovim brendovima. Agroekonomika, 70: 33-46
Willer, H., Meier, C., Schlatter, B., Dietemann, L., Kemper, L., Travniček, J. (2021) The world of organic agriculture 2021: Summary. Bonn: Frick, 3: 20-30
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.2298/JAS2202153S
primljen: 03.02.2022.
prihvaćen: 11.05.2022.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 22.07.2022.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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