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2010, vol. 25, br. 3, str. 201-211
Novi pravci primene otpornosti tikava u kontroli virusnih oboljenja
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
bNaučni institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad
Projekat:
Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. BTR 200089: Unapređenje sortimenta, tehnologije proizvodnje i primarne dorade uljane tikve-golice i nevena

Ključne reči: tikve; biljne vaši; neperzistentno prenošenje; otpornost; kontrola
Sažetak
Kako je pojava brojnih viroza gajenih biljaka u epidemijskim razmerama sve češća, mogućnosti za uspešnu kontrolu stalno se ispituju. Integralna i istovremena primena brojnih pojedinačnih mera kontrole, naročito u slučaju virusa koji se prenose biljnim vašima na neperzistentan način, mogu da doprinesu smanjenju šteta, ali često nisu dovoljno efikasne. Proučavanja osnova otpornosti i načina nasleđivanja, unošenje izvora otpornosti u osetljive genotipove, konvencionalnim ili genetičkim manipulacijama, vrlo su intenzivna kod vrežastih kultura, posebno tikve. Tikve ugrožava veliki broj raznorodnih virusa od kojih se u Srbiji svake godine javljaju virus žutog mozaika cukinija (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), virus mozaika lubenice (Watermelon mosaic virus, WMV) i virus mozaika krastavca (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV), a pojedinih godina izazivaju epidemije. Većina sorti gajenih tikava ne poseduje otpornost ili tolerantnost na virusne zaraze, ali izvori otpornosti identifikovani su u različitim srodnim vrstama. Do sada identifikovani izvori otpornosti na ZYMV nalaze se u genotipovima Cucurbita moschata i Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus i obuhvataju jedan ili nekoliko major gena rezistentnosti koji se nasleđuju dominantno. Slična situacija je i sa WMV, mada su izvori dominantnih major gena identifikovani u C. lanatus i C. colocynthis. Izvor otpornosti na CMV u vidu jednog dominantnog gena identifikovan je u genotipu C. moschata, mada je unošenje ovog gena konvencionalnim putem bilo veoma teško. Pored toga, veliki napori ulažu se u dobijenje genotipova sa istovremenom otpornošću na više virusa čak i drugih patogena, kao i genotipova koji ispoljavaju otpornost na najznačajnije vrste biljnih vaši, kroz mehanizme antiksenoze ili antibioze. Drugi pravac dobijanja otpornih genotipova podrazumeva genetičke manipulacije. Genetski modifikovane otporne tikve su među prvima, od svih gajenih biljaka, uspešno razvijene. Genotipovi sa PD (pathogen derived) otpornošću već se nalaze u komercijalnoj proizvodnji tikava u nekim delovima sveta i dobijeni su unošenjem gena za CP (coat protein) jednog, dva ili sva tri u svetu najraširenija virusa, ZYMV, WMW i CMV. Ipak, ovaj prilaz kontroli virusnih oboljenja tikava vezan je za uočene moguće negativne posledice, pre svega kroz već registrovan transfer gena u biljke spontane flore i nastanak otpornih transgenih korova nepredvidljivog ponašanja i značaja u prirodi. Poboljšana genetička otpornost biljke domaćina bilo na infekciju virusima, bilo na biološke vektore, dobijena konvencionalnim ili metodama genetičkog inženjeringa predstavlja najdinamičnije i najperspektivnije polje istraživanja kao ekonomski i ekološki najopravdaniji pristup kontroli oboljenja tikava i drugih biljaka koje izazivaju virusi koji se neperzistetno prenose biljnim vašima.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.2298/PIF1003201B
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 18.01.2011.