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2018, vol. 40, br. 2, str. 54-72
Neurobiološke osnove rodne disforije aktuelni hipotetički modeli
aKlinički centar Srbije, Klinika za psihijatriju, Beograd
bKlinički centar Srbije, Klinika za psihijatriju, Beograd + Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
cUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Univerzitetska dečija klinika

e-adresadraganaduisin@gmail.com
Ključne reči: rodna disforija; inkongruentnost; pol; hormoni; razvoj rodni identitet; transrodni; neurobiologija
Sažetak
Pojam transrodni odnosi se na nepoklapanje između individualno doživljenog i ispoljenog roda sa biološkim polom označenim na rođenju (natalni pol). Rodna disforija predstavlja distres uzrokovan ovim nepoklapanjem odnosno diskrepancom, koja može dovesti do socijalnog, okupacionog ili emocionalnog poremećaja. Istraživanja u oblasti rodnog identiteta, rodne disforije odnosno rodne inkongruentnosti su, zbog složene prirode fenomena, veoma je komplikovana. Pored toga, istraživači su primetili da patofziologija u osnovi rodne disforije nije dovoljno razumljiva. Savremeni modeli razvoja rodnog identiteta, kako tipičnog, tako i atipičnog, bazirani su na multifaktorijalnoj etiologiji i sinergiji brojnih genetskih, epigenetskih i razvojnih faktora. Značajne izvore saznanja o fenomenu transrodnosti predstavljaju klinički fenomeni (DSD - poremećaj seksualnog razvoja tj. razvojne anomalije - deca sa neodređenom seksualnošću: kongenitalna adrenalna hiperplazija - KAH, Sindrom androgene insenzitivnosti - AIS, praćenje razvoja rodno drugačije, inkongruentne i disforične dece i neurobiološka istraživanja (studije neurovizuelizacije). Aktuelni rad će se fokusirati na pregled savremenih neurobioloških istraživanja mozga transrodnih osoba. Biće prikazani rezultati in vivo neuroimidžing studija koje se bave etiologijom osećanja rodne inkongruentnosti, a koje polaze od hipoteze o seksualnoj diferencijaciji. Cilj ovih studija je da odgovore na pitanje da li mozak transrodnih inidividua liči na mozak osoba istog pola na rođenju ili onih sa istim osećanjem rodne pripadnosti. Neuromidžing studije u ovoj oblasti pre svega su fokusirane na moždani fenotip transmuškaraca i transžena, uz polaznu pretpostavku da se oni razlikuju na više načina od kontrolne cisrodne grupe muškaraca i žena (rodno i polno usaglašene) sa femininim, maskulinim, demaskulinizujućim i defeminizujućim manifestacijama. Saznanja o moždanom fenotipu osoba sa osećanjem rodne inkongruentnosti mogla bi doprineti odgovoru na pitanje da li je polna diferencijacija mozga kod ovih osoba atipična. Odgovor na ovo pitanje dodatno bi mogao doprineti saznanju o samom razvoju rodnog identiteta. Jedan od ciljeva imidžing studija povezanih sa zadacima jeste da pokažu da li su moždana aktivacija i performanse ispoljene nakon dobijanja zadataka polno atipične kod transrodnih osoba. Treći vid studija u ovoj oblasti bavi se evaluacijom efekata primene polnih hormona na mozak, čime se stiče uvid u to na koji način promene u nivou polnih hormona mogu uticati na moždane strukture i njihovu funkciju. Dobijeni fenotipovi mogu imati teorijske implikacije na moždanu interseksualnost, asimetriju i telesnu percepciju kod osoba sa rodnom disforijom.
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jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/Engrami1802054D
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 28.02.2019.

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