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2022, vol. 56, br. 2, str. 559-581
Komentarisanje na internetu - stavovi i navike građana Srbije
Univerzitet u Nišu, Filozofski fakultet, Studijska grupa za žurnalistiku, Srbija

e-adresaneda.necic@filfak.ni.ac.rs, ilija.milosavljevic@filfak.ni.ac.rs
Projekat:
Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije (institucija: Univerzitet u Nišu, Filozofski fakultet) (MPNTR - 451-03-68/2020-14/200165)

Ključne reči: komentarisanje na internetu; javna sfera; WEB 2.0; stavovi građana Srbije; društvene mreže
Sažetak
Internet komentarisanje je, na prvi pogled, omogućilo revitalizaciju javne sfere u kojoj i praktično svaki građanin ima priliku da se njegov glas čuje. Međutim, praktični problemi i specifičnosti ovakvog vida javnog komuniciranja ukazuju na to da je komentarisanje znatno drugačije od idealističkih pretpostavki koje su u početku dominirale. Cilj rada je da istraži na koji način i u kojoj meri se korisnici interneta u Srbiji uključuju u onlajn komentarisanje, zbog čega i kako posmatraju uticaj i značaj ovog fenomena u celini. Istraživanje je sprovedeno posredstvom upitnika na koji je odgovorilo 225 ispitanika. Rezultati su analizirani deskriptivnom i komparativnom statističkom metodom i ukazuju na to da manje od polovine građana komentariše na internetu, da većina njih ne smatra da je moguće da ovaj čin doprinese promeni stava drugog, ali da ga i pored toga smatraju važnim i uticajnim. Takođe, uočene su određene razlike u odnosu na uzrast i stepen obrazovanja.

Introduction

Digital technologies and the Internet have changed the nature of the media world and led to a series of practical changes. The possibilities of convergence, mobility, compression, multimedia, hyper-textuality and interactivity (Castells, 2009; Mihajlov Prokopović, 2016; Milivojević, 2017) have created the conditions for the development of a media sphere different from that in the analogous world of traditional media (Branković, 2019, p. 1370). These changes have not only affected the different creation of media content, their distribution and reception, but also the possibility of a different reaction of the public to them, especially thanks to interactivity.

Formally speaking, interactivity can be defined as "a measure of a media's potential ability to allow the user to influence the content and/or form of mediated communication" (Jensen, Toscan 1999, p. 59). Although some may argue that this option existed in some form in traditional media, which distinguishes the one created in the WEB 2.0 era, is the fact that it is based on digital tools, it is faster, simpler and free (Quiring, Schweiger, 2008, p. 150). As such, it transposes readers of media content from a passive to an active state and enables them to react, respond or create their own content in different ways. Some examples of media interactivity are blogs, forums, online surveys and, the most popular of all, comments on portals and social networks (Ziegele et al., 2017).

Commenting is the most common manifestation of interactivity in online space. Thanks to it, the public can speak out and express their opinion about every topic. This voice of the audience can have an extremely great power in forming or changing the attitudes of the public regarding a certain problem. The strength of the comments is not only in the fact that the authors have the opportunity to see what reactions their texts have in public, but also in the fact that other users can see the general public opinion or, more precisely, the part of the public present online.

The aim of the paper is to establish the habits and attitudes of the citizens of Serbia in terms of online commenting on portals and social networks. Accordingly, several goals have been defined:

  1. Investigate how often and what percentage of citizens are involved in this activity.

  2. Examine why citizens comment and what they consider potential effects of online commenting.

  3. Determine the perception of the citizens of Serbia regarding the phenomenon of commenting and its importance.

  4. Identify potential differences between different age groups or education levels of citizens.

Commenting and online comments as communication phenomena

Readers' online comments represent a very important segment of the media world of the 21st century and some authors consider them a kind of special genre of participation because "they represent the manifestation of interpretive positions in the public sphere" (Kleut, 2020, p. 32). The option of online commenting has given the users a possibility to respond, that is, make comments about a media text, and for media workers and other website visitors to see such comments.

Although this option is available to anyone visiting the websites, very few users comment on the content. According to data from 2017, commenting is most common in Italy, the USA and Spain (Kalogeropoulos et al., 2017). In that period, there were between 2% and 14% of active users commenting on the Internet in the USA (Kleut, 2020, p. 166). In the same year, it was found that 23% of German users commented on portals at least once a month, while 25% posted their comments on Facebook (Ziegele, 2017, p. 324). These data also indicate that, at best, a quarter of citizens comment online and that Internet users more often opt for commenting on social networks than on information portals (Kalogeropoulos et al., 2017). The most common motivations for users to comment on certain content are to express emotions, opinions, to correct mistakes, to participate in debates and share experiences, but also for self-improvement, social or economic benefit and seeking advice (Ziegele et al., 2017).

Two other dimensions are very important for understanding the phenomenon of commenting - the problem of anonymity and regulations. Posting comments on web portals allows a certain amount of user anonymity or hidden or even false representation, the use of pseudonyms, nicknames and the absence of photographs and visual identification (Graf, Erba, Harn, 2017). Anonymity can often lead to much more toxic and aggressive user behaviour, and the emergence of "derogatory language, harsh criticism, anger, hate speech and threats" (Suler 2004, p. 321). The impossibility of monitoring sources and verifying comments may lead to the danger of their abuse, spreading false news, faking public opinion, general public opinion, igniting hate speech and general anxiety and tension in society. As these are just some of the possible consequences, there is a need for a certain type of regulation of the comment section, that is, this new virtual public space.

Until the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century, the space of online communication was quite anarchic and open. However, due to the occurrence of the above-mentioned problems and the increasing circulation of people on online platforms and websites, some portals have cancelled the option of commenting. The reason for that is the fact that, in 2015, the European Court of Human Rights passed a series of judgments holding the portal responsible for all comments made by a third party on it (Gengo, 2016) and this legal view is valid in Serbia as well (Stojković, Pokuševski, 2018, p. 30). Therefore, in addition to abolishing the commenting option, mechanisms have been introduced in some cases to check the content of comments before publishing (pre-moderation) or registering users (Kleut, 2014), which partially or completely removes the option of complete anonymity. The U.S. law does not hold the portal responsible for the content of comments, provided that the portal does not change the content of the comments, does not encourage users to violate the law by commenting, and if the comment itself was not written by an employee1. When it comes to social networks and commenting on them, the authors of the comments themselves are responsible for their content, while media profiles and their moderators can subsequently delete them (post-moderation) (Stojković, Pokuševski, 2018, p. 14).

Despite the fact that an extremely small percentage of people comment, that there is a possibility of hidden and false representation, aggressive and malicious behaviour, that comments are evaluated and moderated, they are still considered significant and relevant statements that are given great importance in the virtual media sphere (Lee, Yang, 2010). They change the nature of public advertising and reactions to public problems, so it is important to show the most significant changes they cause.

Possibilities, effects and problems caused by the phenomenon of commenting

Readers' online comments contribute to the development of participatory culture in the media world and, as such, represent a significant element of the new digital public sphere. The possibility of public feedback to media posts enriches public communication and enables a higher degree of dialogue in the media system. Comments do not only have an aesthetic role, but also help journalists to notice what reactions their texts produce, what the attitude is of the part of the public that decides to comment. At the same time, other readers have the opportunity to get acquainted with the opinions of others, get informed about certain specifics of events (Lee, Jung, Chung, 2021) and discuss by getting involved in commenting themselves. However, online comments cannot be considered a public sphere, because they do not meet all the conditions of the deliberative assumption of the public sphere, although their impact is neither negligible nor simple (Kleut, 2020). According to some authors, the result of this user interaction can at best only be a conversation about the news, the illusion of participation (Petrović, 2016, p. 423), while in the worst case there may be "cacophonous shouting" among readers online (Houston, Hansen, Nisbett, 2011). Therefore, Zizi Papacharissi says that the Internet provides public space, but does not represent the public sphere, and that, although it provides a sense of sociability, it can be counterproductive (Papacharissi, 2002).

Although they cannot be considered representative public opinion, research has shown that comments can have a great persuasive power and are considered more reliable than media posts (Shoemaker, Johnson, Seo & Wang, 2010, p. 67), especially if they are in line with the views of those who read them (Gearhart, Moe, Zhang, 2020). The public sees them as impartial attitudes that are not burdened by the media agenda and editorial policy (Hong, Cameron, 2018). As such, they have the power to reduce or intensify public attention and public attitudes towards the phenomenon presented in the media text (Lee, Young, 2011). This is especially noticeable in crisis situations, when comments have the power to distort significantly the way in which readers approach media posts and the problem itself (Sung, Lee, 2015). The impact of comments is even greater on social networks because it has been shown that readers form their opinions about a published text based on the comments, even before reading the text (Gearhart, Moe, Zhang, 2020).

Due to this power and the fact that they are often misinterpreted as the objective voice of the entire public, comments can be an instrument for manipulating public opinion. Dalibor Petrović (2018) alleges that they can be used for the purposes of online propaganda, especially in the sphere of politics, and that their modelling directs the attention of the public. "Comments can be positive in order to support government activities, then negative in order to belittle government opponents, and finally neutral in order to redirect the discussion in the desired direction" (Bradshaw&Howard, according to Petrović, 2018). Many companies, political organizations, but also various other interest groups use the technique of deliberately, team-wise and systematically placing certain attitudes and imposing a certain attitude with the help of bots or trolls (Kleut, 2020). This strategy can be very effective, but the public is not always susceptible to it. Confidence in comments may decline if information is judged to be controlled or manipulated. Then people will perceive the message as less true/convincing (Vendemia, Bond, DeAndrea, 2019). However, the regulation of the bot problem cannot be reduced to a critical judgment of the public. Therefore Jan Pennekamp et al. (2019), developed an automated methodology for detecting "duplicates", i.e. comments under different pseudonyms written by the same person or organization with the aim of fabricating the public opinion.

All the above-mentioned dimensions, effects and potential problems introduced into public communication by the option of online commenting indicate that this is a very complex phenomenon with the power to shape reality and public opinion. As 375,000 people in Serbia use the Internet every day, while 71.2% have an account on one of the social networks (Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, 2020), it can be concluded that digital forms of communication, including commenting, occupy a significant place. It would be useful to determine the habits of this large group of people and their perception of the phenomenon of commenting online.

Methodology

In accordance with the set goal of the research, the quantitative analysis and statistical-comparative method were used in the paper. A special questionnaire consisting of two parts was made for the purpose of data collection. In the first part, the respondents answered the questions by choosing one or more offered answers, while the second part of the questionnaire consisted of statements about which the respondents gave their opinion, by selecting answers created according to the Likert-type scale from 1 to 5, more precisely from "I completely disagree" to "I completely agree". The questionnaire was created by means of the Google Forms platform and distributed via social networks, so the sample is random. During December 2020 and January 2021, 225 people completed the questionnaire (N = 225). For the purpose of obtaining more precise results, all data were statistically processed both descriptively and comparatively in the SPSS 20.0 program.

Interpretation of results and discussion

The questionnaire was completed by a total of 225 respondents, of which 94 were between 18 and 24 years old (41.8%), 85 between 25 and 35 (37.8%), 38 between 36 and 55 (16.9%), and 8 were of age 56+ (3.6%). There were 167 females and 58 males. Out of the total number of surveyed citizens, 173 (76.9%) had high education, 50 (22.2%) had secondary education and 2 (0.9%) had primary education. As many as 84.4% of them get informed via the Internet on a daily basis, 12.4% several times a week, 2.7% once a week, and only 0.4% of respondents less than once a week. The results show that regardless of the respondents' age, gender and level of education, there are more people who get regularly and often informed by means of the Internet than those who do not.

Respondents' habits regarding online commenting

The analysis of the answers shows that the respondents, for the most part, only occasionally read comments on portals and social networks, when the topic is particularly interesting. As many as 82.2% of the respondents occasionally read comments on portals, while 72% of them occasionally read them on social networks. On the other hand, the results show certain differences, namely a much higher percentage of the respondents constantly read comments on social networks (23.6%) than is the case with portal texts (10.7%). The percentage of respondents who do not read comments at all is small, with 7.1% on portals and 4.4% on social media. There are no significant differences between age groups, however, the answers of respondents with different levels of education have shown, that those with primary education more often (50%) do not read comments on social networks, compared to those with secondary (2%) and high education (4.6%).

The frequency of commenting on portals and social networks is also very low, because the respondents for the most part said they never commented (53.3%), or that they commented extremely rarely (32.9%). The frequency of commenting on social networks posts is slightly higher. Thus, 42.7% of the respondents commented extremely rarely, 33.3% never, 23.6% occasionally and 0.4% commented frequently (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Учесталост коментарисања текстова на онлајн информативним порталима и објавама на друштвеним мрежама / Frequency of commenting on texts on online information portals and posts on social networks

The results also show differences in the frequency of commenting when it comes to age. The oldest respondents most often comment on portals and social networks. The respondents in the age group of 18-24 do not comment on portals (67%) and social networks (41.2%), while the respondents aged between 25 and 35 do not comment on portals either (56.5%), but they comment very rarely on social networks (43.5%). The respondents 36-55 years old, as compared to the previous age group, comment on a larger scale, more precisely very rarely on portals (50%) and on social networks (52.6%), while the majority of the respondents 56+ years old occasionally comment on portals and social networks (62.5%).

When it comes to the topics that the respondents comment on, their favourites are social topics/people's lives (20.4%), politics (13.8%) and entertainment (7.6%). On the other hand, topics that are commented less are health (4%), sports (3.6%), economy (0.9%) and local news (0.4%). There are almost twice as many women who do not comment at all (40.7%), compared to men (22.4%). The favourite topics of male respondents are politics (29.3%) and social matters (19%). The favourite topics of female respondents are social matters (21%) and others, i.e. none of the above (14.4%). Politics (8.4%), entertainment (8.4%), health (4.8%), sports (1.8), local news (0.6%), economy (0%) are the least present topics matters (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Теме које се најчешће коментаришу на онлајн информативним порталима и објавама на друштвеним мрежама у односу на пол / Most frequently commented topics on online information portals and posts on social networks in relation to gender

The respondents with primary education comment exclusively on entertainment topics (50%), those with secondary education most often comment on social topics (28%) and politics (22%), while respondents with high education comment on social topics (18.5%), something else or none of the offered topics (13.3%), and politics (11.6%). On the other hand, there are no significant statistical discrepancies in the responses of different age groups.

Considering the results shown, it can be concluded that the citizens of Serbia get mostly regularly informed via the Internet, regardless of gender, age group and level of education, whereas they read comments only occasionally, when they find a topic particularly interesting. According to the analysis of the responses, commenting on portals and social networks is not an established habit of the citizens of Serbia, and the topics they most often comment on are in the field of people's lives, politics and entertainment.

Perception of the phenomenon of commenting and its importance

After the analysis of basic data on the respondents' attitudes towards online commenting, it is important to investigate the perception of the phenomenon of commenting, as well as its importance. One of the ways to determine how the respondents perceive the phenomenon of online commenting is through examining their attitudes about the motives and reasons for posting comments, as well as the effects of commenting.

Citizens' motives for posting comments

The respondents most often comment in order to provide some additional information or example related to the topic in question (30.7%) or to express their agreement or disagreement with the post or text (18.2%). A smaller percentage of respondents give some other reasons for commenting (8.4%), or they comment to point out to someone else that their comments are wrong (4.9%). Those belonging to approximately same age groups give similar reasons for commenting, and the respondents aged 18-24 and 25-35 comment in order to provide some additional information or examples related to the topic (about 30% respectively). The responses of those between the age of 36 and 55 and those 56+ are also similar, considering that 36.8% of the ones from the age group 36-55 and 50% of those from the age group of 56+ comment to express their agreement or disagreement regarding the post or text. By comparing the answers in relation to the level of education, it has been established that there are no significant statistical deviations.

The fact that only 19.1% of the respondents agree partially (16.9%) or completely (2.2%) with the statement that their comments can change someone's opinion about the topic, indicates that the motive for commenting is not to change the attitudes of others. More than half disagree (57.8%), of whom 32% mostly and 25.8% completely. However, the citizens with primary education are more likely to believe that their comments can change someone's opinion (50%), compared to those with secondary (20%) and high education (18.5%). The motivation for posting comments is to change other people's opinion has been confirmed through the answers of older respondents, and the gradation of the answers mainly follows the age groups, from the oldest to the youngest. The respondents of age 56+ most often think so (75%), while the percentage of others is slightly above 50%.

The emotional state, or more precisely anger or resentment about a text or another comment, is mostly (68.4%) not the reason for posting comments. Namely, these are the reasons for commenting with slightly over a fifth of respondents (21.8%). Furthermore, anger or resentment over another comment may be the reason for posting comments in a small percentage of respondents (20.4%), while the majority (71.5%) believe that this type of emotion does not motivate them to comment. However, with 56+ year-old respondents, anger or resentment over a text may be the reason for commenting to a greater extent (75%), compared to age groups 18-24 (13.9%), 25-35 (17.7%) and 36-55 (39.5%).

On the other hand, when it comes to motives for not commenting, almost half of the respondents (49.3%) indicate that other people's comments contrary to their opinion are not the reason for not commenting. However, almost a third (28%) choose not to comment when they see that most of comments contradict their opinion. It is interesting that 50% of the respondents with primary education do not express their opinion when it opposes other people's opinions, compared to 32% of the respondents with secondary education and 19.7% of respondents with high education. This indicates that there is a certain percentage of citizens who are reluctant to express their opinion even in the online environment, if that opinion is not dominant. This potentially indicates the existence of a spiral of silence by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann (1984) in the digital environment, which adds another argument in support of the doubtfully free and complete online public sphere.

Perception of other people's comments

Therefore, the perception of other people's comments is a very important motivation factor for making one's own comments, but also for the phenomenon of commenting as a whole. The fact that 19.3% of the respondents read comments on the text before reading the text itself also shows how important comments are to some people. However, it should be noted that 68% of them do not do that. The respondents older than 56 most often (37.5%) read comments before the text, while the percentage of others is much lower (between 18.1% and 7.9%). In addition, the respondents with primary education never read comments before reading a text (100%), as compared to the respondents with secondary (76%) and high education (65.3%).

A large percentage of the citizens (43.5%) believe that they can learn more information from the comments than from the text itself, with 32.4% mostly agreeing with the statement, and 11.1% completely agreeing with it. The respondents with primary education are more likely to confirm that they can learn more from the comments than from the text itself (100%), as compared to those with secondary (40%) and higher education (43.9%). When it comes to age differences, the respondents aged 56+ (50%) are more likely to say that they cannot learn more information from comments than from the text itself, as compared to age groups of 18-24 (34%), 25-35 36.4%) and 36-55 (36.8%).

However, when it comes to changing one's own attitude due to reading someone else's comment, 52% of the respondents gave a negative answer, i.e. 32.4% disagreed mostly with the above possibility, and 19.6% completely. Less than one quarter of the responders believe that reading comments can lead to a change in their opinion, namely 17.8% mostly agree and 4% fully agree with the statement. The respondents with primary education may have a greater change in attitudes after reading comments (50%) than the respondents with secondary (24%) and high education (20.8%). In addition, the analysis of the results has shown that attitudes become fixed with the passage of time and are not likely to change, given that 56+ years old respondents mostly retain their views after reading comments (75%), then the respondents in the age group 36-55 (60.6%), followed by those aged 25-35 (51.8%), and finally the respondents aged 18-24 (46.8%).

The reason for this can be found in the interesting answers to the statement "I think that most who comment on the phenomenon see it wrongly and superficially". More than half of the respondents (51.1%) agree with it, namely 39.1% mostly agree with the statement and 12% completely agree with it, while 19.6% disagree with the statement, 14.7% mostly and 4.9% completely. When it comes to the level of education, there are no significant differences in this answer, but differences exist regarding the respondents' age. The respondents of age 56+ (50%) to a greater extent do not see anything wrong and superficial in the approach to the phenomenon, in contrast to the respondents aged 18-24 (19.1%), those aged 25-35 (16.5%) or 36-55 (21.1%).

Perception of the importance of commenting

However, despite the fact that most respondents do not think that their attitude can be changed under the influence of other people's comments and believe that a large number of those who comment do so superficially and wrongly, the results show that the respondents see the phenomenon of commenting as very significant. Thus, almost half of them (48.4%) confirm that commenting is an important part of the citizens' opinion about a topic. A slightly lower percentage (32.9%) responded negatively, while 18.7% were indecisive. Therefore, views regarding the claim that commenting is an important part of citizens' giving opinion about a certain topic are divided, with a higher percentage considering it important. In the analysis of responses in relation to age, it was found that the respondents from the age group of 56+ to a greater extent (75%) consider commenting an important part of giving opinion of the citizens, in comparison to the age groups 36-55 (52.7%), 25-35 (50.5%) and 18-24 (42.6%).

Moreover, that commenting can affect the attitude of the public and the responsible ones for the subject is confirmed by almost half of the respondents (45.8%), more precisely, 34.2% mostly agree and 11.6% fully agree. A slightly lower percentage of answers were negative (34.7%), with 20% mostly disagreeing and 14.7% completely disagreeing. The opinions are divided in this case as well, but a higher percentage of those who believe that commenting can have an effect on the attitude of the public and the responsible ones regarding a topic (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Однос одговора на две наведене тврдње у упитнику / Ratio of responses to two statements in the questionnaire

There are no significant differences in relation to the respondents' age or gender.

From the above-listed results, it can be concluded that Serbian citizens most often comment on portals and social networks in order to provide some additional information or examples related to the topic in question and to express their agreement or disagreement with the post or text. Anger and resentment over a text or comment are not the reason for them to comment, and they point out that other people's comments contrary to their own opinion do not prevent them from commenting. The respondents do not read comments before reading the text to which they refer, although they state to the greatest extent that they can learn more information from comments than from the text itself; in addition, they say that reading comments does not change their attitudes to a particular topic. One of the reasons can be found in the fact that a significant percentage of the respondents believe that most of those who comment on the phenomenon they write about look at it wrongly and superficially. They also say that their comments cannot change someone's opinion about a certain topic. Despite all the above, the respondents consider commenting to be an important part of expressing opinions, which can have an effect on the attitude of the public and the responsible ones regarding a topic.

Differences in the perception of commenting and habits can be noticed to a certain extent among members of different age groups. The older citizens post and read comments more often, and they find it harder to change their attitudes after reading than it is the case with the younger ones, but at the same time a higher percentage of older respondents consider commenting important. Older respondents' comments are more often motivated by anger and the desire to point out that someone is wrong, while the younger ones comment more often to provide additional information. In relation to education level, the differences are not so pronounced, but it can be noticed that the respondents with a lower education level are less likely to comment, especially if their opinion differs from the dominant one expressed in the comments.

Concluding considerations

The perception of online commenting among the citizens of Serbia is very interesting, complex and, at times, contradictory. Although slightly less than half of the citizens occasionally engage in online commenting, most often to convince someone that they are wrong or to provide some additional information, a significant number of them believe that commenting cannot change attitudes and has no impact on them, because most of those who give comments do it superficially. However, regardless of that, commenting is usually considered important and influential. This attitude is especially present among older population, while among those with a lower education level there is a greater fear of commenting when the dominant attitudes are in opposition to theirs. All these data point to the difficulty in interpreting commenting as a free and complete type of the public sphere and indicate a very specific role and view of this part of the digital public space.

The research pointed out the specifics in the habits of online commenting of Serbian citizens and the ways in which they perceive this activity and its significance. Moreover, certain differences caused by respondents' age and their education level were identified. The disadvantage of the research is that the sample is relatively small to establish a definitive view of the analyzed phenomenon, but it can serve as a basis and starting point for more complex and comprehensive research that would thoroughly explain the practical habits, implications, role and importance of online commenting in the modern digital society.

Dodatak

Acknowledgement

This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Agreement No. 451-03-9 / 2021-14 / 200165).

Endnotes

1More at: https://coralproject.net/blog/internet-comments-and-the-law/ (Visited: 27 March 2021)

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Ziegele, M., Springer, N., Jost, P., & Wright, S. (2017). Online user comments across news and other content formats: Multidisciplinary perspectives, new directions. Studies in Communication and Media, 6(4), 315-332. [Crossref]
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Pennekamp, J., Henze, M., Hohlfeld, O., Panchenko, A. (2019) Hi Doppelgänger: Towards detecting manipulation in news comments. u: Companion Proceedings of the 2019 World Wide Web Conference (WWW '19), New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery
Petrović, D. (2016) Social activism on social networks sites. Sociološki pregled, vol. 50, br. 3, str. 397-430
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Quiring, O., Schweiger, W. (2008) Interactivity: A review of the concept and a framework for analysis. Communications, 33(2), 147-167
Shoemaker, P.J., Johnson, P.R., Seo, H., Wang, X. (2010) Readers as gatekeepers of online news: Brazil, China, and the United States. Brazilian Journalism Research, 6(1), 55-77
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (2020) Use of information and communication technologies in the Republic of Serbia. https://publikacije.stat.gov.rs/G2020/Pdf/G202016015.pdf
Stojković, M., Pokuševski, D. (2018) Anonymous Hate: Mechanisms to protect against hate speech on the Internet. Beograd: Beogradski centar za ljudska prava
Suler, J. (2004) The online disinhibition effect. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(3), 321-326
Sung, K.H., Lee, M.J. (2015) Do online comments influence the public's attitudes toward an organization?: Effects of online comments based on individuals' prior attitudes. The Journal of Psychology, 149(4), 325-338
Vendemia, M.A., Bond, R.M., Deandrea, D.C. (2019) The strategic presentation of user comments affects how political messages are evaluated on social media sites: Evidence for robust effects across party lines. Computers in Human Behavior, 91(91), 279-289
Ziegele, M., Springer, N., Jost, P., Wright, S. (2017) Online user comments across news and other content formats: Multidisciplinary perspectives, new directions. Studies in Communication and Media, 6(4), 315-332
 

O članku

jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/socpreg56-36652
primljen: 25.02.2022.
revidiran: 10.06.2022.
prihvaćen: 11.06.2022.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 22.07.2022.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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