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2012, vol. 38, iss. 1, pp. 21-30
State of chernozem compaction in maize production
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture

emailvciric@polj.uns.ac.rs
Project:
Organic agriculture: Improvement of production by use of fertilizers, biopreparates and biological measures (MESTD - 31027)

Keywords: chernozem; cone resistance; soil compaction; maize
Abstract
Chernozem is considered as ideal soil due the excellent physical, chemical and biological properties. Deterioration of these properties has seen as consequence of increased soil compaction. Lack of regular crop rotation, low input of organic fertilizers, burning harvest residues increased the soil susceptibility to compaction, which has appeared as a major environmental problem and a threat to the effective fertility of soil. The aim of this study was to determine the state of chernozem compaction which is exposed to cropping more than 100 years and to compare these values with the optimal for achieving high yields of maize. Considerably higher cone resistance was recorded on the wheel track of tractor in relation to soil outside the track in the spring as well as in autumn, until the plowpan zone. As a result of compaction and very low moisture content in soil considerably higher mean values of cone resistance were recorded in the autumn than in the spring. Generally, the cone resistance in the spring period was generally below the critical value of 2 MPa, while in autumn exceeded the extremely high value of 4 MPa and at Požarevac and Sombor reached almost 6 MPa. In order to reduce the negative effects of soil compaction following practices are recommended: proper and timely tillage at moisture content slightly below the lower plasticity limit, many agrotechnical operations with fewer passes of machinery, increasing organic matter content and soil loosening every 3 to 4 years to 50 cm depth. Based on the results of fertility control and monitoring of water-physical properties of soil, it is necessary to implement practice to preserve the good and improve the unfavourable characteristics of the soil to protect it from degradation and increase its effective fertility.
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article language: Serbian
document type: Original Scientific Paper
published in SCIndeks: 22/03/2013

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