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2021, br. 53, str. 175-203
Upravljanje znanjem - razvojni potencijal turizma u Vojvodini
Univerzitet 'Union - Nikola Tesla', Fakultet za poslovne studije i pravo - FPSP, Beograd, Srbija,
U modernom turističkom razvoju destinacije se tretiraju kao turistički proizvodi koji uspešno konkurišu na tržištu zahvaljujući svojim atraktivnim i visokokonkurentnim elementima. Brend destinacije demonstrira lokaciju, atrakcije i aktivnosti unutar granica. Kreiranje brenda je dugotrajan proces, a uspostavljeni brend se veoma dugo čuva u umu potrošača. Zato je neophodno imatu dugoročnu viziju brenda destinacije koji se bazira na znanju i kooperaciji svih koji su uključeni u kreiranje turističkog proizvoda. Kreirani brend destinacije koji je uspešno predstavljen odgovarajućim segmentima tržišta kroz kanale komunikacije postaje snažno oruđe u pridobijanju i privlačenju tržišne tražnje. Stoga je cilj ovog rada da se analizira Vojvodina kao multikulturalna turistička destinacija i ukaže na to koliko je kao takva prepoznatljiv brend u turističkom biznisu. Osnovni cilj je da se sagleda stanje i perspektive za plasiranje proizvoda na domaće, a naročito na međunarodno turističko tržište. Krajnji cilj je uključivanje stručnjaka iz ove oblasti i lokalnog stanovništva u projekat razvoja brenda vojvođanskog turizma, kako bi se oživela napuštena ruralna mesta, sačuvalo selo i tradicija.

1. Introduction

Knowledge management is the transformation of individual knowledge of employees in the organization into collective, organizational knowledge, which would be available to all members of the organization at all levels. Organizations apply the knowledge management process to identify, create, present, and distribute knowledge for reuse and learning across the organization. A set of methods is aimed at maximizing the use of knowledge sources, which enables better preparedness of organizations in a demanding market. The subject of this paper refers to the importance of including the knowledge management process in the presentation of branding and opportunities available to Vojvodina as a multicultural tourist destination, and collecting relevant information and using the collected knowledge in creating a unique offer of a particular geographical area and their use for successful branding. The methods of sharing the acquired knowledge are through education and motivation of tourist workers. The importance of provincial institutions, tourist organizations and their work so far on the issue of including multiculturalism as an integral part of the brand of tourist products, is also a segment of the analysis of this work. The main goal is to look at the situation and perspectives for placing products on the domestic, and especially on the international tourist market. The ultimate goal is to involve experts in this field and the local population in the tourism development project, in order to revive abandoned rural areas, preserve the villages and tradition. The source of data for writing this paper is professional literature, texts, reports of tourist organizations, the Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications. The inductive method, the method of analysis and synthesis were used to analyze the current state of tourist resources and attractions, as well as other assumptions of tourism development. Quantitative research is based on the statistical method in presenting tourist traffic based on the database of the Republic Statistical Office of Serbia and the Tourist Organization of Vojvodina.

2. Theoretical aspects of knowledge management in the tourism business

Due to the ever present globalization, managing knowledge in the tourism business is key to business success. "The most dynamic changes in the business of all participants in the tourist market have taken place thanks to the application of modern technology. The application of new technologies and their use in all areas of the tourism industry is important, especially when it comes to reservations, issuing tickets, accounting operations and invoicing, as well as better information in general. The basis for increasing the speed and efficiency in the process of using information is in the various business domains in the tourism business. The advantages have been achieved by connecting with the central reservation systems of airlines and tour operators, then global distribution systems, and especially the Internet is becoming increasingly important. The biggest advantage of online sources of information is based on high up-to-dateness, and information can also be available on mobile devices (smart mobile phones)" (Appleyard, 2013: 60). Tourists and service users are enabled to search for airline tickets more easily and efficiently using search engines on airline sites and sites specialized for this purpose (Skyscanner). To search, you need to enter the desired dates, place of departure and landing. The classic airline ticket, as a written document, has lost its significance today due to the development of e-ticketing. An electronic air ticket is a virtual air ticket that is stored as a digital record in the system, with a unique identification number. To book an air ticket, you need the exact name and surname as it is titled in the passport, without diacritical marks, because the Latin letters of the English alphabet are used in air traffic. The procedure at airports has also been simplified. Passengers submit only a valid passport when checking in for a flight (check in). Through computer technology, in a radically new way, the tourist product is brought into contact with potential consumers. Such a product is placed through the appropriate travel organizer, which is located in the software as a data provider. Modern information technology has deeply entered tourism and all subjects on the market (hotel companies, travel agencies, airlines, etc.). The tourist is informed about the possible trip and its contents via his own computer, and at the same time he reserves it and pays for it (Bakić, Nikolić, 2002: 65).

Also important is the "development of world wide web technology that has enabled a large number of participants in the tourism market to provide a wealth of information about their own offer (hotels, carriers, cruise companies, tour operators and travel agencies, theme and amusement parks), including the socalled virtual tours. National tourism organizations also form web presentations with a lot of information about individual destinations, and innovative technologies used by e.g. Google Maps or Google Earth (allows users to visually search for their desired destination)" (Spasić, Pavlović, 2018: 62). Virtual tours additionally bring potential space closer to potential tourists. Combining multiple panoramic photos into one whole leads to the creation of virtual walks. Visitors explore open spaces, cities, exhibits in museums, galleries, tourist locations. Through this type of online visit, information is obtained about the number of searches and in that way the wishes and habits of visitors are introduced. They represent another type of communication between tourist organizations, institutions and tourists. The Tourist Organization of Serbia, together with the tourist organizations of cities and municipalities of the country, promotes Serbia on social networks Facebook, Instagram and Twitter through virtual tours and promotional films of destinations, tourist and cultural sites. The number of online reservations is also increasing, due to the availability of information before the trip. Survival in the market requires the ability to adapt to world trends and innovations (Arsenijević, 2016). Cooperation of several tourist organizations and exchange of knowledge will contribute to strengthening the brand of a given space (Arsenijević, Bulatović, Bulatović, 2012). The presentation of virtual tours for the area of Vojvodina exists for the Museum of Vojvodina, the virtual museum of Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, the Petrovaradin Fortress. The Matica Srpska Gallery in Novi Sad shows permanent exhibitions through a virtual walk. The native house of the Danube Swabians in Sremski Karlovci also has its own virtual tour. This is a tour whose elements are presented in Serbian, German and English, with information on exhibits of cultural significance. The National Museum in Pancevo offers a whirlwind walk and the opportunity to see one of the versions of the monumental composition "Migration of Serbs", by Paja Jovanović. Virtual travel can be a motive that will create a desire to take real travel. The availability of all the necessary information to potential tourists will speed up the decision to book their trip from home with the help of the Internet. Innovation orientation (online business) and keeping up with the needs of travelers can lead to great competitive advantages.

3. Methodological aspects of knowledge management in the tourism business in Serbia

"Choosing the appropriate technology, tools and methods is very important for the implementation of the knowledge management strategy in the company, organization, although technology is not the only component in knowledge management. In the information age we live in, it would be unthinkable to have an effective knowledge management initiative without the appropriate technological infrastructure to support it" (Wickramasinghe, von Lubitz, 2000).

3.1. Recommendations for the choice of methods for disseminating knowledge in the tourism business in Serbia

With the constant development of technology, the labor market requires highly skilled workers who have a desire for continuous advancement and who adapt to change. Opportunities for professional development are numerous. Employees are expected to be committed, responsible and eager to succeed. Seminars, congresses and conferences in the field of tourism, allow employees to upgrade their knowledge and business advancement, to establish contact with a large number of lecturers and colleagues from the same field. Connecting with people from your profession is a useful thing and such acquaintances are always good for further cooperation.

Agencies can also improve their business by introducing a system for selling airline tickets. Employees have the opportunity to expand their knowledge in this area and be specialized sellers of airline tickets. The basic precondition for a travel agency to obtain a permit, ie a license for the sale of airline tickets, is the special professional training of the staff. Staff acquire professional training through courses organized by national airlines or associations. One of the leading systems in the field of information technology in the air travel industry is Amadeus. The sale of airline tickets implies knowledge of English and knowledge of all rules and procedures that apply in air traffic. Performing certain jobs requires the possession of special knowledge and skills acquired in special courses (Excel course, language training, communication skills). An active member of an organization that can provide practice, expand knowledge and connect people around the world are AIESEC, EGEA (European Geography Association - for Students and Young Geographers), Youth for Tourism, Serbia for Youth, Association of Young Researchers "Branislav Bukurov", etc.

The knowledge that employees possess is stored and shared among colleagues in order to improve the business, which will create additional values for the organization. Knowledge is transferred through documents, the Internet, social networks, databases, by sending reports, e-mails (Arsenijević, Kastratović, Orčić, 2017). Hotel databases, tourist guide databases, excursion databases and destinations are being formed. Conversations and direct contacts are the best ways to transfer and exchange knowledge among workers (Arsenijević, Jovanović, Radosavljević 2017).

The Tourism Fair in Belgrade is the most important tourist event that gathers all participants in the tourism industry, where in one place tourism workers exchange experiences and present their offers. Through team learning, employees learn to work together, contribute to supplementing existing and creating new knowledge, creating new ideas. LinkedIn is a business social network that helps increase the number of business contacts, and also uses it to exchange information among employees in the same industry. The efficiency of the entire organizational process depends on the degree of success of the exchange of information with people, both inside and outside the organization. The relationship between the employees in the company, the treatment of the employees, the respect of their opinions and the constant investment in their education and development is very important, regardless of the level of business in which they are engaged. (Erjavec, Arsenijević, Štarc, 2018).

3.2. The approach to motivate employees in the tourism business to learn

Tourism, as a complex system, is an activity that enables the employment of a relatively large volume of labor. "Perhaps in no other activity is the importance of personnel so great. Despite modern technologies, reservation and information systems that provide numerous services to tourists, replacing human labor, personal contact of various tourist staff (agency workers, hotel staff, guides, employees in catering, trade) and tourists is something on which the tourism industry is based. In addition to employees who have personal contact with tourists, from which numerous socio-psychological moments arise, the role and importance of the management staff is extremely great. Training and development of staff should be harmonized with development plans and goals. We need experts who will understand the essence of the tourist phenomenon and who will approach practice with theoretical knowledge, which has not been a frequent case in our conditions so far. Such trained staff, who will know all aspects of tourism, and not only its economic dimension, must be the basis for the development of tourism in any destination, region or country. Investing in the continuing education of all tourism employees must be seen as an investment." ( In order to remain competitive in today's world, we must concentrate not only on our education and development, but also on team development. Whether it is the position of director of a huge corporation, owner of a medium-sized company, small entrepreneur or school director, it is necessary for the organization to constantly learn and grow (Canfield, Switzer, 2018:271).

Introducing employees to the tourist destination that is placed with consumers is very important. Info tours or fam trip trips are organized, usually attended by representatives of travel agencies, guides and other travel workers, with the aim of gaining personal insight into a particular destination, hotels and other local services. Unfortunately, such trips are not frequent, for that reason employees are forced to use different sources to get information about a destination or a hotel. Popular sites TripAdvisor,, Lonely Planet, then professional magazines (Travel Magazine, Travel, Tourist World, etc.) are useful for gathering the necessary information. Information is provided within the agency itself and from external sources. Using the results of market research from external sources (tourist associations), as well as inclusion in tourist information systems. Incentive Travels are defined as "business for incentives" or as a "modern means of management", as motivating sales staff, sales channels, consumers and employees through certain rewards in the form of tourist travel, all to contribute to the goals of the company. These trips were created as a kind of incentive for employees, who receive a tourist trip as a reward. Among the awards (diplomas, free time and money), tourist trips are highly valued. Almost every company in the United States has a tourist trip as a reward. In general, "incentive travel" belongs to the group of "business travel", but not as a classic business trip (congresses, conventions, etc.) in which the basic motive is to do business, but it is a trip for pleasure. These are, first of all, very high quality and relatively expensive trips, because they are exclusive destinations, hotels of higher categories, better quality transport and everything is done to satisfy the user of such a trip (extra reward for extra commitment) (Bakić, Nikolić, 2002: 64). Many tourist organizations, airlines, hotel groups organize trainings for employees in tourism with a cocktail, food, interesting activities, prize draws. People from different countries, regions, companies, different nationalities meet, which contributes to their better acquaintance and exchange of experiences. The development of social and cultural life (theater performances, festivals, parties, etc.) affects the improvement of work activities of employees. Setting goals on a monthly and annual basis is something that additionally motivates employees. Working together as a team, they reach the set targets and deservedly gain additional bonuses and benefits. Once you start measuring what you want more in the business, you can start developing benchmarks that you know will increase revenue, profit and market share. In every business, there is a list of goals that, when you reach, overcome and improve them, will continue to change income and increase profits. The solution is to inspire, motivate and empower your team to constantly identify, monitor, measure and achieve results. With the help of the reward system, it is possible to connect the commitment of employees with the satisfaction of their expectations (Bubulj, Arsenijević, Simić, 2011). "According to the theory of expectations, employees make an assessment of the attractiveness of the award before making a decision on whether to accept the task, how much effort and effort they will invest within the organization, or how motivated they will be to perform the task. which he will receive for the invested work and successfully completed work task. The attractiveness of the award depends on whether it meets the needs that employees have and to what extent it does so. If the rewards are compatible with the needs of employees and largely meet their needs, it is quite certain to expect great motivation of employees when performing work tasks" (Greenberg, Baron, 1998: 155). It is recommended that there are various factors that motivate people. By recognizing what employees want from their work and what is most important to them, essential information can be obtained for efficient human resource management. In this way, the long-term profitability and survival of the organization is guaranteed and ensured. Such an attitude can help an organization get answers to questions like: Why do some people put more effort into doing their job? Why are some people more efficient in their work than others? "Motivation is, above all, a psychological category that can be defined as a driver of human activity in order to meet needs. People start their activity because they feel the need for some lack. Satisfaction of the need is possible with a suitable facility. For example, the need for food can be met if you have food. In order to provide facilities to meet the needs, it is necessary to initiate the activity and direct it towards finding the facilities necessary to meet the needs. Acquisition of facilities becomes a goal whose realization satisfies human needs. Based on the presented model, we can conclude that the basis of motivation lies in the human desire to meet needs." (

4. Multiculturalism as a brand of Vojvodina's tourist destination

"Every tourist destination has unique features of space. Demographically, Vojvodina is a conglomeration of different peoples and ethnic groups and as such is a set of different cultures. The mosaic of cultural heritage is something that only Vojvodina can offer on the tourist market"(Pivac, 2012: 77). Multiculturalism can be defined as living in a community of several cultures in one area or in one state. The term multiculturalism is thought to date back to 1971, when it was used in a French magazine to mean "the coexistence of several cultures in one country". Since 1990, in the classification of the Library of Congress in Washington, it has been defined as a condition in which ethnic, religious and cultural groups survive within one society. "Multiculturalism is the idea or ideal of the common life of different ethnic and cultural groups within the same pluralistic society, which implies their coexistence, mutual tolerance and equality" (Nedeljković, 2008: 120-142). The notion of multiculturalism in anthropology as a science can be interpreted in several ways. When the inhabitants of a certain area differ according to cultural identities, preserving their language, folk customs, folklore, religion, cultural peculiarities, that area is characterized by multiculturalism.

Vojvodina is a typical multicultural area, ethnically the most heterogeneous part of Serbia and one of the most ethnically and religiously heterogeneous regions in Europe. According to the degree of ethnic diversity, only some regions of the northern foothills of the Greater Caucasus (Russian Federation) can be compared to it in Europe. Constant migrations have been and remain the main factor in the demographic development and ethnic complexity of the Vojvodina population. Today's ethnic-religious composition of Vojvodina is the result of numerous historical events, wars, changes in state borders and migrations caused by various factors. For the needs of the Marketing Strategy of Tourism of Vojvodina, published in 2009, a research was conducted. Respondents, tourist entities, identified the multiethnicity of Vojvodina as one of its basic characteristics. The opinion of the respondents is that multiculturalism should be the bearer of the basic brand of tourism in the region. Folklore, melos and naive art of ethnic communities are recognized as the greatest wealth. For anthropogenic values, the respondents put festivals and manifestations in the first place, and multiethnicity in the second place.

The ethnic structure of the population of Vojvodina is complex and in constant changes, as a result of geographical, historical, political, demographic and many other factors. For future research of this kind, it is necessary to know the people, ethnic groups, historical circumstances and more in the field. What is known: the incursions of the Turkish army starting from the Battle of Marička in 1371 and the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 were accompanied by the movement of the Slavic population from the south to the north. Even then, the South Slavic unity was expressed not only in the joint war against the Turks, but also in the suffering and emigration to the Austrian territory in the Pannonian Plain. The great migration led emigrants from several parts of our country: some were from Kosovo and Metohija, others from the Vardar and Crnodrim basins, the third from Moravian Serbia, the fourth from Sjenica and Peshter. And when they crossed to the left side of the Sava and the Danube, they captured many settlements - urban and rural. There are legends that say that there were immigrants from Povardarje near Kovin, Pancevo, Bela Crkva, Zemun, Novi Sad, Sombor, etc. They became a prominent factor in crafts and trade. In general, our inhabitants were needed in Hungary and Austria in the border plains (Samardžić, 1989: 11). They were an important part of the great world in the vast Pannonian Basin. Our emigrants in several settlements of the Pannonian Basin believed that their removal under Austrian rule was only temporary (Trifunovski 1995: 29).

The development of ethnic structure during the twentieth century can be divided into several phases. The first is related to the period of Austro-Hungarian influence until 1918. It is characterized by the growth of the absolute number of almost all ethnic groups. The number of Hungarians grew most dynamically in the period from 1880 to 1910. In southeastern Bačka by 66.3%, in central Banat by 82.35%, and in Srem by 130%. In the same period, there was a smaller decline and the share of Germans. In the period between 1899 and 1913, the territory of today's Vojvodina, mostly Banat, was affected by great migration. It is estimated that 150,000 people emigrated from these areas during this period, mostly to America and other overseas countries. More than half of these migrations were Germans (53%), while members of other ethnic groups participated significantly less, Serbs (18%), Hungarians (10%). (

After the First World War, there were changes in the ethnic structure, there was an emigration of certain ethnic groups and changes in the declaration. An extreme increase was registered among Croats, which is a consequence of, until then, Bunjevci's declaration as Croats. The number of Hungarians decreased, as there was a mass migration of civil servants to their home country. A similar reason explains the decrease in the number of Romanians. There was also a colonization of the volunteer population in Vojvodina, about 48,000 of them, which increased the number of Serbs in the area. The Second World War had much more severe consequences for the ethnic composition of the population of Vojvodina. After the war, the Germans first emigrated and were expelled from Vojvodina and the whole of Yugoslavia, and then the colonization of the Yugoslav population took place in their settlements. Out of a total of 225696 colonists, 162447 were Serbs, 40176 Montenegrins, 12000 Macedonians, 7134 Croats, 2090 Slovenes, etc. This significantly changed the centuries-old ethnic composition of Vojvodina, since the Serbs, a people who had a relative ethnic majority during the entire observed period, have now gained an absolute ethnic majority. At the same time, the Germans, the third largest ethnic community in Vojvodina, almost completely disappeared from this area. The Hungarians also noticed a significant increase, which is partly a consequence of the transfer of about 15,000 Germans to their ranks. The beginning of the 90's indicated new significant changes in the ethnic composition of the population of Vojvodina. The latest changes in the ethnic and religious structure of the population were caused by the civil war in the former Yugoslavia. Numerous refugees from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina came to Vojvodina, due to which the share of the Serbian population increased. Vojvodina is also the only part of the former Yugoslavia in which the number of persons ethnically declared as Yugoslavs has increased. Proof that history has repeated itself this time as well, and that Vojvodina has again warmly accepted the endangered Serbian population.

The peoples of the Panonian Plain

In one area, twenty-five peoples form a harmonious community, in its richness, with its authenticities (Serbs, Hungarians, Slovaks, Croats, Yugoslavs, Montenegrins, Romanians, Roma, Bunjevci, Russinians, Macedonians, Ukrainians, Muslims, Germans, Slovenes, Albanians, Bulgarians, Czechs, Russians, Gorani, Bosniaks, Vlachs, Šokci, Jews, Ashkali). Nowhere in Europe do so many different peoples live in such a small area as here. There are villages in which some of these national communities are the majority population, while in some the population ratio is quite proportional. In one of such villages, Belo Blato in Banat, with about 1400 inhabitants, live Slovaks, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Serbs and sixteen other peoples, all the inhabitants of the village speak four languages (Slovak, Hungarian, Serbian, Bulgarian), out of seven that are actively used in total.

Through the promotion of multiculturalism in Vojvodina, we are working on a better position of nautical, hunting, spa and other types of tourism. Raising the awareness of the population about preserving the environment and its indigenous values. Ethnotourism is special with a preserved and nurtured tradition. Ethnographic richness contributes to the quality of anthropogenic values, because it represents the achievements of folk art, which are unique and different in each nation. Better valorization of cultural and historical monuments and preservation for future generations. Raising the tourist offer to a higher level, where we must respect the needs and attitudes of the people who live in this area.

The richness of diversity of Vojvodina villages

"As long as there is the old song in the small street, the tradition will not disappear" (

In addition to the numerous villages of Vojvodina that have certain specifics, in this paper we will mention the villages of Ruski Krstur, Tavankut, Sokorenovac and Bački Monoštor, because of the unique ethnic groups that live in these villages. Like many others in this area, they have potentials that we can present to tourist groups. Cultural heritage, traditional architecture, costumes, songs, customs, old crafts, authentic local products, all make up the cultural and historical richness of the space in which we live. Ruski Krstur, a village located in the southern part of the municipality of Kula belongs to the West Bačka District. Inhabited in 1745, when Franz Joseph de Redl, advisor to Empress Maria Theresa, signed a document on the settlement of two hundred Russinian Greek Catholic families. This is the oldest and largest place where Russinians live. The village is the center of the exarchate for Greek Catholics in Serbia, and the church located in the village is therefore a cathedral. The most important festival in the village is the festival of culture of Russinians and Ukrainians "Red Rose". During this ceremony, a competition in original Russinian and Ukrainian music, a review of children's cultural activities and various exhibitions are held.

Tavankut, a settlement of North Backa in the municipality of Subotica. On maps from 1689, the village is called Torankut. It is believed that the name means "a well on the lake" and that it is of Hungarian origin. In the immediate vicinity of Donji Tavankut, there are the remains of the "castrum" fortification, which was mentioned as early as 1439, for which there is material evidence that it is older than Subotica. The archeological settlement should be another unavoidable locality when organizing any type of tourism (Kovačević, Obradović, 2003: 127-129) According to their peculiarities, the customs that accompany Christmas and Easter holidays, weddings, spinning and harvesting stand out the most. Dužijanica is the harvest festival of the local Bunjevci. Weaving straw wreaths on the occasion of the end of the harvest has grown into a real naive art. Weddings were held on Mondays, if not that day, then on Wednesdays. The first dance is called the Great Bunjevac Circle, the most famous dance of the Bunjevci of Bačka.

The village of Skorenovac, belongs to the municipality of Kovin and is located in the South Banat district. The first inhabitants of Đurđevo, today's Skorenovac, were Hungarians, Banat Bulgarians from Bešenova, Stari Lec and Modoš, one hundred and seventy-five families at the beginning of the 15th century, as well as Germans who came a little later from Plandište and Sečenje. Later, Hungarians from Bukovina, the so-called Sekelji, also immigrated. They show their ethnic uniqueness through cultural heritage, and the most famous examples are the Sekelj gate, the kopja and the Rovaško alphabet. Banat Bulgarians who came from the area of northern Bulgaria to Skorenovac, due to their isolation from the motherland, managed to preserve their specific dialect, a special flag, anthem, coat of arms, and the alphabet dating from the 15th century. The proximity of Deliblatska peščara, the Danube River and the rich tradition provide an ideal basis for tourism development. Village festivities are numerous. On the eve of the village celebration of Krivaj, on August 20, the Skorenovac summer festivities are celebrated, the Grape Ball in the fall after the grape harvest, the Masquerades are held in February, and the "Days of Hungarian Cuisine" in October.

Bački Monoštor is a village in the municipality of Sombor. Monoštor is an island surrounded by Danube tributaries and canals, which can only be reached by crossing bridges - "Village on the Seven Danubes". The greatest tourist potential of this settlement is the "Special Nature Reserve of the Gornje Podunavlje". In the area of Bački Monoštor there are remains of old fortifications, one of them is the Hungarian fortification Bodrog. The first inhabitants were Šokci, who fled from Slavonia and Bosnia under the invasion of the Turks. During the Second World War, Hungarian soldiers entered the village and destroyed four hundred books from the Šokac reading room. In the village you can visit several ethno houses where lunches, tastings and workshops can be organized. The village is ready for tourists. It has an info center where you can book excursions, stay in private accommodation, rent a boat or a bicycle. Festivals are held in the place that promote the preservation of nature and tradition. Bodrog Fest, a festival of tradition, music, food and old crafts. Ecological-music festival "Danube Regeneration".

4.1. Tourism business in Vojvodina

Tourism has been identified as a potential driver of economic growth, as stated in the Tourism Strategy of the Republic of Serbia. Because of its unique natural, archaeological and cultural assets, with eight UNESCO sites and a central position in Southeast Europe Serbia has the potential to win a much larger market share among domestic and foreign tourists. The international market does not yet recognize Serbia as a significant tourist destination. Serbia is achieving below average results in the tourism sector, so it is necessary to harmonize its offer with market expectations as soon as possible. Serbian tourist potentials are not sufficiently valorized. The Republic of Serbia, and therefore Vojvodina too, have only comparative advantages in tourism, because it has a diverse structure of tourist offer (it is located near traditional and new tourist markets, has a long history, preserved natural resources, relatively good communications and people known for hospitality). The process of transformation of comparative into competitive advantages in tourism of the Republic of Serbia is part of the overall reform processes, as well as the political attitude towards tourism as an important creator of national welfare.

Today's main "products" that are followed by the national statistics of Serbia are spas with climatic health resorts, mountains and administrative centers. "Main city destinations: Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis. The most important spas: Vrnjacka Banja, Soko Spa, Koviljaca Spa and in Vojvodina Kanjiža. Mountain destinations: Kopaonik, Zlatibor and Divčibare. Recently, rural tourism has been gradually developing in Serbia, which has sustained various forms of offer in different parts. Thus, in the western part of Serbia, this product is shaped on the basis of the revitalization of old rural Serbian houses, while in Vojvodina the offer of farms is increasingly recognized, as a typical Vojvodina rural experience related to activities" (RS Tourism Strategy, 2005).

4.2. Tourism turnover in Vojvodina in 2019

According to the data of the Republic Bureau of Statistics, 419,963 tourists visited the area of Vojvodina from January to September 2019, which is 4.0% more than in the previous year. There is an increase in the total number of overnight stays of 4.1%. "In September, Vojvodina was visited by 55,449 tourists, which is 10.7% more than in the same period last year. The increase in the number of arrivals of domestic tourists is 7.5%, compared to September 2018. When it comes to overnight stays in AP Vojvodina, in September, there was an increase in the number of overnight stays in the amount of 17.2% (138,370 overnight stays), while the increase in the number of overnight stays of foreign tourists is a record 29.3%, compared to September years. Novi Sad was visited by 22,353 visitors in September (10.2% more than in the same period last year), of which 15,222 were foreign tourists and recorded an increase of 10.8%. The number of overnight stays in Novi Sad was 40,942 (6.4% more than in the previous year). Subotica realized 10,723 overnight stays, which is 13.8% more than in September 2018, while the increase in the number of overnight stays of domestic tourists is a record 21.4%. The spas with the largest tourist traffic are the Palić Spa and the Vrdnik Spa. The total number of arrivals in the spa Palić for September is 3,667 (21.4% more than last year), while the increase in the number of arrivals of foreign tourists is 9.8%. The total increase in the number of overnight stays in this spa is 27.6%, while the increase in the number of overnight stays of foreign tourists is as much as 46%, compared to the same period last year. When it comes to the Vrdnik spa, the total number of arrivals is 2,574, which is 6.8% more than last year" (

Vojvodina, having in mind the natural and anthropogenic potentials it possesses, should certainly represent a very important tourist area not only in the part of Europe in which it is located, but also beyond. In the future, it should be expected that tourism in Vojvodina will encourage positive influences and will exert impact on the state of the environment in a broader sense, ie on environmental, social and economic components. This refers to the affirmation and popularization of natural values, primarily through the preservation of protected natural resources and hydrological resources. Tourism should bring the key natural values closer to all interested categories by arranging the space. It is necessary to carry out the arrangement of the monumental heritage of Vojvodina, primarily rural and urban ambient units. Based on tourist potentials, there are preconditions for the development of the following types of tourism: hunting, transit, nautical, congress-cultural-manifestation, spa, excursion-residence, rural tourism.

4.3. Autonomous province's institutions in the tourism business

Institutions under the auspices of the Assembly of AP Vojvodina are in charge of the regulation of the tourist business of Vojvodina. All citizens are equal and have the right to their language, culture, nationality, religion, in accordance with the law of the Republic of Serbia. Equal languages besides Serbian are Hungarian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian and Russinian languages and alphabets. The institution in charge of tourism is the Tourist Organization of Vojvodina, the Provincial Secretariat for Economy and Tourism, local tourist organizations. The Sector for Tourism and Regional-Economic Cooperation forms two narrower internal units:

  • Department of Tourism and Economic Events,

  • Department of Tourism and Regional Economic Cooperation.

The Department for Tourism and Economic Events performs study-analytical and professional-operational tasks, as well as other tasks related to the professional preparation of acts for sessions of the Provincial Government and working bodies in the field of regional cooperation; tasks related to the preparation and implementation of development plans and programs in the field of tourism are performed; drafting proposals for decisions, proposed solutions, information, reports and other acts adopted by the Provincial Government and the Assembly in the field of tourism and regional economic cooperation; proposing acts regarding the planning of programs and projects on applications for European Union funds, donations and other forms of development assistance in the field of tourism; proposing acts regarding the planning of programs and projects on applications for domestic funds; monitoring and drafting regulations governing this area; monitoring of the APV Tourism Development Program and the Tourism Development Strategy of Serbia, analyzing trends and market phenomena; performing complex study-analytical tasks related to the preparation of programs in the realization of regional cooperation; monitoring the implementation of projects implemented within the signed agreements on regional cooperation; establishing cooperation with other sectors in the Secretariat, republic and provincial bodies; monitoring the work of the Tourist Organization of Vojvodina, performs activities related to cooperation with relevant institutions in the field of tourism, cooperation with development agencies, republic and provincial authorities, cooperation with companies; participation in organized educational seminars; monitoring and support of events in the field of tourism, preparation of competitions, expert analyzes, reports and information in the field of tourism; preparation of expert analyzes, reports and information related to specific forms of tourism; and other tasks ordered by the Provincial Secretary and the immediate supervisor.

The Department for Tourism and Regional-Economic Cooperation performs activities related to the preparation and implementation of tourism development plans and programs; prepares draft decisions, draft resolutions, information, reports and other acts adopted by the Provincial Government and the Assembly; proposing acts related to planning the development of regional cooperation; monitoring the regulations governing this area; analyzing market trends and phenomena; establishing cooperation with other sectors in the Secretariat, republic and provincial bodies; proposing acts regulating the use of mineral and thermal waters, balneological and climatic resources; drafting of acts for the establishment of spas and health resorts on the territory of the Province in accordance with the Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia; organizing the taking of the professional exam for the local tourist guide and tourist companions for the area of the Province; inclusion of a member of the commission for categorization of catering facilities; work in the field of achieving and promoting development with neighboring countries and other European regions; monitoring and analyzing the state of foreign trade with these countries and proposing measures to improve and encourage regional economic cooperation; drafting documents, protocols and memoranda related to economic cooperation between the Province and the region; cooperation with development agencies; monitoring regulations in the field of foreign economic relations; initiating changes in regulations in these areas; preparation of draft decisions for the Provincial Government and the Assembly; organizing fairs and economic events, promotion and appearances of the Secretariat and the Vojvodina economy at fairs and economic events in the country and abroad; implementation of activities in the part of subsidizing small and medium enterprises and tourist organizations for appearances at fairs; organization of educational seminars; establishing cooperation with companies and fair centers; proposing acts in accordance with the law for arranging fairs and other economic events of provincial importance; proposing acts for the establishment, categorization and manner of work of fair centers; proposing a network of fairs and other economic events on the territory of the Province; preparation of competitions, expert analyzes, reports and information and other tasks ordered by the Provincial Secretary and the immediate supervisor. (

In 2017, the Provincial Secretariat for Economy and Tourism worked on encouraging tourism through support to local governments, businesses, citizens' associations, with about 300,000,000 dinars. Investments have contributed to the improvement of health tourism, preparation of planning and program documentation, increase of tourist traffic, new jobs have been created, the quality of services has improved. Through innovation and improvement of tourist potentials, the promotion of the tourist offer of AP Vojvodina was presented on the domestic and international market.

4.4. Gathering knowledge about multicultural tourism in Vojvodina as a tourist brand

The originator of the idea of creating a unique tourist product in the area of Vojvodina is the association - Danube Tourist Cluster Istar 21. Cluster of the tourist economy and institutions that are interested in the development of tourism in the Danube region. It is aimed at the development of tourism in the entire Danube region in Serbia. It brings together companies and organizations in the Danube region, deals with market research, educates employees in tourism. By collecting data on peoples, their customs, way of life, manifestations and creating programs of stays in Vojvodina villages. The Ministry of Economy and Regional Development 2008 supported the establishment of the cluster.

The project Wealth of Diversity was created in order to connect tourism and multiculturalism of Vojvodina. In 2011, the Danube Tourist Cluster Istar 21 announced a competition in order to select villages specific for their multiculturalism and tradition. After visiting 45 villages in Vojvodina, the expert team singled out the villages that were most ready to join the project. Fourteen villages were selected: Belo Blato, Skorenovac, Bački Monoštor, Banoštor, Golubinci, Kovilj, Stapar, Turija, Stari Slankamen, Krčedin, Donji Tavankut, Totovo selo, Gudurica and Selenča.

When choosing the villages in Vojvodina that are most ready for tourist promotion, the commission especially appreciated the first impression, which includes the rural ambience, the cleanliness of the village and the welcome, then the access to the village, which means the quality of roads and road signals. Important for the final decision is the multicultural community (or tradition of preserving customs), the attractiveness of tourist attractions - natural and cultural-historical values, then the attractiveness of cultural heritage reflected in folk costumes, musical folklore, traditional architecture and old crafts. The cuisine is especially scored, that is, the space for dining, the existence and arrangement of toilets, the decoration of the table, the authenticity of the gastronomic specialty. Significant points were also brought by the tourist animation - organization of the entire stay of the commission, adherence to the schedule (3.5 hours for each village), presentation of customs, cultural and entertainment program. Material resources such as households for accommodation of tourists, the possibility of riding a boat, carriages, bicycles, the existence and arrangement of an ethno house, the existence and arrangement of a souvenir shop, brought additional pluses to the village that had it. Finally, but no less important, the human resources were evaluated, ie the interest of the local population, hospitality, staff expertise, experience with tourists, the number of boats involved in the organization of the reception and the entire offer. However, one of the most important and most difficult to measure elements was: experience. ( A tour plan and program has been made for all ages, domestic and foreign tourists. The goal is to unite the multiculturalism of Vojvodina and work on the revitalization of the village. In addition to organized visits to villages and getting to know the culture and life of the population, visitors have the opportunity to enjoy the rural ambience, preserved nature, to get to know the sites and sights of a particular area. The participation of the local community directly contributes to their economic progress. With the development of rural tourism, the villagers make an economic profit by using the available resources and engaging in activities that are not strictly related to agriculture. When we include rural areas in the tourist market, there will be a revival of rural areas, engagement of the local population and migration from villages to cities will be reduced.

4.5. Dissemination of knowledge about multicultural tourism in Vojvodina as a tourist brand

A large number of tourist destinations are present in the tourist market. Each destination has certain tourist potentials and strives to create a unique brand by which it will be recognizable on the world market. Today, many destinations have created an image of their uniqueness even though tourists have not had the opportunity to visit it. When we talk about the Maldives, the first thought is the paradise islands, we connect Switzerland with the Alps, Brazil is our football association, we associate Kenya with safaris and many more examples.

The goal and strategy of tourism in a country is successful implementation in the tourism market. The goal is to create a unique and unrepeatable tourist product. A large number of different cultures in Vojvodina make this part of Serbia and Europe authentic. The development of tourism in a potential destination, ie increased interest in its attractive factors leads to increased interest and involvement of an increasing number of investors (services, hotel and catering facilities...). Managing a destination image is winning over the target group through education and spreading the message through different sales channels. Creating a marketing strategy and involving a larger number of travel agencies and tour operators leads to more mass tourism. Receptive travel agencies play a significant role because the basis of their business is the reception and provision of services (domestic and foreign) to tourists staying in their area. Giving information about the destination, service providers, events and activities and presenting it all through various forms of presentations and interactive content.

The travel agency Magellan from Novi Sad, as a participant in the project "Wealth of Diversity of Vojvodina Villages", organized group programs of visits to villages. Publications were published and excursion programs were presented on the official website of the agency with accurately described and determined activities at the destination. By creating a tour program of tours of rural areas, we will influence the survival and preservation of rural areas. The presentation of new excursion programs is done at fairs in the country and abroad, where a large number of people from the world of tourism gather. Tourist organizations prepare plans and programs of promotional activities. The entire promotion and offer was presented at the largest tourism fair in 2002 in Berlin. Brochures and catalogs were printed for the appearance at the fair. The content that is designed is interesting and interactive. It allows visitors to get involved in food preparation, learn a craft that is authentic to a particular place and get to know the folklore and culture of the local population. The target markets are the countries where the population originates. A large number of Hungarians visit the village of Skorenovac during the traditional manifestation that takes place on the eve of the village celebration Krivaj. At the festival of domestic tourism "Start and get to know Serbia", a specific tourist product of short visits to Vojvodina's multicultural villages was presented. The promotion and presentation of the project "The Wealth of Diversity of Vojvodina Villages" was done through the media on national television and through other means of propaganda, published in professional magazines. Television shows dedicated to rural areas of Serbia have contributed to the spread of knowledge about the places and people who inhabit our area. Shows such as "Sasvim prirodno" and "Zadnja kuća Srbija" point to, among other things, multinational environments, their natural treasures, way of life and tradition.

Strategic and planning organization at the state level is important for the tourist activation of Serbia. In 2005, the Provincial Secretariat for Education, Regulations, Administration and National Minorities-National Communities presented the project "Affirmation of Multiculturalism and Tolerance in Vojvodina", with the task of involving primary and secondary school students in the implementation of various subprojects and events related to multiethnic and multicultural society. Realized activities during this project are the following:

  • sports competitions with additional contents "Tolerance Cup",

  • museum exhibition "Homeland on the Danube - coexistence of Germans and Serbs in Vojvodina",

  • museum exhibition "Living together"-coexistence of Serbs and Hungarians - mobile form,

  • competition for amateur photography "Wealth of Diversity",

  • "Together"-a documentary TV series,

  • media campaign-Multiculturalism in AP Vojvodina,

  • presentations of minority national communities "Ethno-day",

  • research "Evaluation of the state of interethnic relations among young people in AP Vojvodina." (

In 2017 the Tourist Organization of Vojvodina has published the following research projects: Research on the quality and level of tourist satisfaction with the tourist offer in Vojvodina, Research on the attitudes of domestic interest groups on opportunities for active holidays in rural tourist destinations of AP Vojvodina, Operational marketing plan for tourism development through multiculturalism in Vojvodina.

The tourist market of the Balkans is especially interesting because the largest number of arrivals is recorded by Serbia from the surrounding countries. Campaign to promote Vojvodina as a multicultural tourist destination and a plan of activities in the future for the three emitting markets of Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary: Promotion of short films on YouTube channel, Twitter campaign – famous people about multiculturalism of Vojvodina, Organization "Days of Vojvodina in Ljubljana", various gatherings and seminars in the field of tourism, Organization of press conferences within fairs and stock exchanges, Advertising within the daily press of the most important events in Vojvodina.

4.6. Education of employees in the tourism business in Vojvodina

Tourism, as a complex system, is an activity that enables the employment of a large number of staff. This activity enables the employment of workers with different levels of expertise. Tourism needs staff whose education and further trainng follows the development of plans and goals. Continuous investment in the education of tourism workers is a way to gain a competitive advantage for both the individual and the entire organization.

In making marketing decisions, the human factor has a primary role in terms of marketing goals in tourism, strategies and programs. "Non-formal education in tourism", with the support of the Executive Council of AP Vojvodina, should be implemented in the next few years with a selective approach and according to the needs arising from the Marketing Strategy of Tourism of Vojvodina as a combination of theoretical and practical topics and the possibility of permanent interactive relations with lecturers, not only during lectures but also during free time. The areas of selected topics of education must be predominantly from marketing and management in tourism (because there are also weaknesses in the tourism development of Vojvodina). The implementation of marketing strategy in tourism is inextricably linked to the human factor, not only because it should be realized, but also because of the direct incorporation of the human factor in the overall tourism, ie the program of market performance.

Activity plan presented through the marketing strategy of AP Vojvodina:

  • Marketing and Management Development (EDUCATION)-Executive Council A.P. Vojvodina, – Secretariat for Economy Educons University, Sr. Kamenica University of Novi Sad Tourism,

  • Development of an integrated tourist product – Tourist Organization of Vojvodina,

  • Development of "regional" and partial tourist products – Tourist Organization of Vojvodina." (

The education of employees must be diverse in order to meet the tourist needs of different segments of visitors. Associations of tourist agencies and tourist organizations hold thematic workshops where employees in tourism have the opportunity to get acquainted with new programs and ways to promote new destinations. The project "Virtual and Cultural Tourism" is a workshop that aims to point out to tourism workers the benefits of social networks, ie how modern technologies affect the development of tourism. Continuous learning through research is the result of creating new strategies for the promotion of domestic tourism. Connecting marketing and tourism, designing the name of the travel program for all three areas - "Spend your salary in Banat", "There is nothing better than Srem", "Backa i tačka". Experience in marketing and following trends in this area is very important for the further development of the organization. The scientific professional journal of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Novi Sad, publishes the papers of professors and top experts in the field of tourism. Professional literature is very useful for the employees during training and additional education.

In order to prepare this paper, we contacted the Tourist Organization of Novi Sad. Tihana Putin, in charge of the organization's public relations, points out that the employees who are directly involved in tourism graduated from the Faculty of Natural Sciences in Novi Sad and TIMS. The education of employees is diverse and depends on the sector (hotels, catering sector, cultural institutions, congress tourism, promotion on social networks, cooperation with the media). Employees are educated through various seminars, conferences, participation in numerous webinars, following regular flows and publications of relevant leading international organizations, attending numerous educational workshops organized at the city, provincial and national levels, exchanging experiences with other tourism organizations. Everything is very applicable directly to the business and development of local tourism. Performance is also measured by statistics. In the last eight years, according to the official data of the RSZ, Novi Sad has been constantly recording an increase in the number of arrivals and the number of overnight stays, both domestic and foreign tourists. By March 2020, according to official data, the number of arrivals increased by 15%, overnight stays by 4.4% compared to the same period in 2019.

4.7. Education and tourists

With the development of the tourist market, special wishes are developed and new habits related to travel and the inclusion of new destinations are created. The constant growth in the number of tourists and their requests requires strong information support for the administration of these requests. Tourists are increasingly becoming sophisticated travelers in their desires, demanding a service of high quality and value that they will receive for their money and time (Jovanović, 2015: 18). According to statistical data of the World Tourism Organization in 2018, the largest number of trips in the world were aimed at pleasure, recreation and rest 56% (except in the Middle East where the biggest motive for travel is visits to relatives and friends and health tourism). Pleasure trips increased from 50% to 58% compared to 2000. Only 13% of international tourists traveled due to business obligations, while 27% of the world's population traveled for religious, health reasons and to visit relatives and friends. The remaining 4% of trips are not defined.

Consumer behavior is changing in tourism and in many areas of business. Modern tourists are looking for a better service, detailed presentation of the offer, they research and compare the offers of competitors. They become less and less loyal and make the decision to travel at the last minute, "which leads to a reduction in the time between booking and realization. The market has become more segmented, which means that the consumer is addressing a larger number of segments at the same time. In overcoming such and similar challenges in the tourism industry, information and communication technologies play an important role" (Gratzer, Werthner, Winiwarter, 2004:258).

Social networks have an important role in spreading information and encouraging travelers to go to attractive destinations. Social networks connect users around the world who share common interests, which leads to the establishment of various groups of travelers, sites, tourist blogs. The contents are created by the passengers themselves, they convey impressions from the destination, they share positive and negative comments. Through direct involvement, they convey the real situation on the ground.

Tourist associations also gather and educate tourists and with their activities lead to the popularization of tourist movements. The state entrusts various information and propaganda tasks to the Ministry of Tourism, regional and local tourist organizations. Tourism organizations have an important role to play in promoting and disseminating knowledge and developing tourism.

4.8. Importance of tourist fairs for knowledge management in the tourist business of Vojvodina

The condition for the formation of a quality offer of "receptive travel agencies, adapted to the needs and wishes of tourists, is the constant monitoring of trends in emitting markets. Therefore, researching trends in the field of tourist demand, as well as following the news on the supply side, is necessary for the receptive agency to achieve advantages over the competition, which at the same time represents an undoubted benefit for a specific destination. The precondition for that is the "presence" in the markets of emitting countries, through frequent contacts with business partners, appearances at fairs and similar activities, and in some cases, permanent offices are opened in the most important markets. The most important fair event for the European market is the Berlin Tourist Exchange (ITB), which takes place in early March and represents a significant meeting of supply and demand for the preparation of the tourist season next year" (Spasić, Pavlović, 2018: 257).

Since the beginning of 2020, the Tourist Organization of Novi Sad has participated in numerous tourist fairs. The offer was presented at fairs in Stuttgart, Vienna, Bratislava, Ljubljana and Istanbul, Bulgaria and at the International Tourism Fair in Belgrade. Participation in the fair leads to connecting with foreign media in order to present the tourist and cultural offer. Organization of business meetings for domestic and foreign travel organizers with the aim of establishing cooperation and creating a joint offer of visiting the city. The promotion of Novi Sad at tourist fairs is carried out in different ways, one of which is by organizing the so-called familiar trips, by hosting foreign and domestic journalists in as large a number as possible, from pre-specified markets and depending on which audience they address. Domestic and international fairs are equally important. In the case of B2B fairs, meetings are arranged a month in advance, which are the so-called speed dating meetings, meetings that are held quickly. Fair lectures are also being prepared. Cooperation with foreign agencies is the first and basic goal of going to the fair. Meetings with tour operators in order for Novi Sad to be included in the offer of arrangements. If the fair is conceived as a be to see, the offer is adjusted to the audience whose interests are already known in advance. For example, visitors from Slovenia are most interested in outdoor events, activities on Fruška gora, farms and chards. At the fair in Stuttgart, the situation is similar, people who travel a lot with their campers and most of them want to stay in nature. Visitors to the Berlin fair are more interested in culture, youth tourism and festivals. It is precisely determined for which market the offer is prepared, with which partners meetings will be held at fairs, and after that the continuation of cooperation and implementation of everything that has been agreed will begin. Tourist fairs are a meeting place for airlines, tourist organizations, agencies, hoteliers, restaurateurs. Brochures and catalogs as a means of promotion are a treasure trove of knowledge about places, landscapes, historical figures, events, buildings. Folklore societies, artists, musicians, people who make souvenirs, cooks and others who have certain skills and abilities also perform at the fair.

4.9. The importance of ICT in knowledge management in the tourism business of Vojvodina

Modern civilization is constantly changing. Information and communication technology is a new means of management and competition. The period we are in now is characterized by a reduction in the effects of the dimensions of time and space by various methods, techniques and technologies, and we call this whole process globalization today. Globalization is used as a term to denote global integration (International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2008). Globalization permeates not only the economy, but also social, linguistic, cultural, political, technical and environmental integrations. Klancnik (2006) notices the effects that globalization has on the tourist destination: demand and competition are increasing, the pressure for cooperation, innovation, specialization, branding and raising the level of service quality is growing, but also a noticeable lack of capital for investments that would lead to achieving goals. Tourism will look for its development in the changes that occur in the process of globalization, ie the emergence of information and communication technologies or (information-communication technologies/ICT), with care for the environment, local culture and the development of sustainable forms of tourism. All these changes can bring new directions of development to tourism. ICT will play an increasingly important role in accelerating the flow of information between those who create tourism products and services and those who use them. The Internet provides the greatest opportunities for communication with potential guests. The main ways to attract consumers are: Website, application of GDS system, Google Plus profile and Google Plus pages, On-line travel agencies, search engine optimization (SEO), social networks, mobile phone applications, Web banners, YouTube, e-mail marketing.

Online travel agencies (OTA - Online Travel Agency) are a tourist internet through which it is possible to book and pay for tourist services and the most famous is which is available in 41 world languages and provides offers for 120,000 hotels in the world ranked by stars. and hotels. com specialize in a combination of hotel reservation and airline tickets. Consumers from the United States use this type of search the most. HRS is very popular on the German market. is used to book accommodation only in European countries.

Market segments spend most of their time on social networks: Facebook, Twiterr, Instagram. The value of the brand on these networks should be placed in the best light. Messenger is considered to be the main sales tool of the future. Namely, there is an online chat option, where it is possible to ask about the doubts that users have with the reservation, and to be answered at the same time (robotic message). In addition to social networks, mobile phone applications are gaining momentum in business, especially those that specialize in one type of service. FourSquare is a mobile social network used to locate catering facilities and cultural content nearby, which are ranked according to quality and have very good recommendations which allows tourists to always be up to date with newspapers. Hoteza Mobile is an application that offers all the necessary information related to staying in a hotel in one place and can be installed on any device and connected to any hotel system. It can be used in 68 languages. A banner is most often an image (JPEG, GIF, PNG), and can also be multimedia content such as flash. A flash banner often contains audio or video animations to make the visitor of the site where the banner is placed more interesting and thus increase the possibility of visiting. Banners are mostly placed on pages that have interesting content. YouTube is a popular online video sharing service where users can post, view and rate videos. Email marketing is one of the most effective promotional channels. If used properly, email marketing can bring a large number of reservations without investing any money in any advertising. Websites in tourism are a very strong sales tool and it is this segment of the presentation and presentation of the offer to which all organizations, tour operators and associations must pay a lot of attention. Potential tourists make their first contact with the destination through the website. A large amount of content is available on the Internet, about 1,830,000 search results for those who want to visit Vojvodina. The world's most famous tourist portal Lonely Planet connects Vojvodina with the sunflower field and ancestral vineyards. It was also pointed out that this is a country of 25 ethnic communities. According to the site's recommendations, the unavoidable destinations of this part of Serbia are Novi Sad, Subotica, Sremski Karlovci and Fruška gora. belongs to the association "Explore Serbia", which was founded in 2010. An organization that deals with the promotion of tourism in Serbia. The site is adapted to visitors from abroad and all information is available in both English and Serbian. The contents are interesting and attract the attention of visitors. The text about the ten best places to visit in Vojvodina is one of the most read contents of the site. Through the site, it is possible to access the youtube channel with short stories and recordings of tours of Serbia. Tour reservations are possible online. If we use search visit Vojvodina, the site that is at the top of the search is On this site we can search what attractions and activities (sights, nature and parks, museums, places of religious significance, spas and wellness centers, nightlife, aqua and amusement parks) a particular place offers. informs new users with tips and impressions of previous hotel service users. This portal is known to every traveler who plans their trip, so every month it helps about 460 million travelers in the world, offering them the best options/suggestions/comments for travel. Includes impressions regarding: accommodation, airline, restaurant services and destination. It is connected to the booking sites Booking, Expedia and Hotels, so it is also possible to make a reservation through it., TO Vojvodina website. The Exit Festival, as the largest openair music festival in Europe, occupies a dominant position on the home page. Content rich and informative, accessible to the user for easy navigation. Functional and clear design. The site is rich in multimedia content (pictures, brochures, maps, research, video) and is available in Serbian and English. Available content is regularly updated with the date of the last post displayed. News and projects in the field of tourism. Combined offer of all tourist organizations of Vojvodina on one portal. of the association for tourism development of Vojvodina. The editors of the site pay great attention to a special niche in tourism, nature and bird lovers. The brochure for "Birdwatching in Vojvodina" is available to all users through this site. of a receptive travel agency from Novi Sad. The agency was established in 1992. The area of business where it takes the lead in the market is cultural and congress tourism. She is a member of the global network of Lufthansa City Center. The content is available in five languages (Serbian, English, German, Russian and Chinese). Very well organized review of the site and divided for those interested exclusively in business tourism and part of the site for travelers whose goal is to travel for pleasure. Data on site visits are personal and are available to administrators and other authorized persons who have access to hosting. In this example, tools were used to find out attendance, not as an exact number but as an estimated number. According to the website, from December 2019 to the end of February 2020, the website of the Tourist Organization of Vojvodina had a total of 1,969,927. visits.

5. Conclusion

Tourism, as one of the most dominant economic branches of today, requires the best possible quality, accuracy in the exchange of information and constant work and investment. The progress of not only the company but also the society is based on knowledge, its sharing, transfer and reuse. It is necessary to find the best way to implement knowledge in the business strategy of the company. Knowledge has no value if it is hidden and not transmitted, it should be shared with others, developed and used in the best possible way because knowledge is the most valuable resource. In order for the company to operate as a whole, it is necessary for all the links in the business to function harmoniously. Passenger satisfaction is one of the key factors of competitive advantage. The mass of tourist movements and the development of the organized travel market have influenced the emergence of the application of new technologies and the increasing need for new knowledge. Continuous improvement, education and innovation are the key to success. In the tourism business, Vojvodina occupies an important place because it has numerous tourist potentials. Multiculturalism is the basis for the development of a unique tourist product. The richness of customs, folklore, music and gastronomy are an excellent basis for the formation of various educational tourist programs for both domestic and foreign guests. It is characteristic of Vojvodina that it represents a kind of ethnic phenomenon in terms of the national diversity of its population, because twenty-five nations live here. The vision of the development of Vojvodina as a tourist destination is based on the need to respect their geographical, historical and cultural peculiarities. Serbs are the majority population, while certain minorities have a majority in some settlements. National minorities differ in number and spatial dispersion, so the village of Jabuka is known for the Macedonians, Lovćenac is a settlement with the largest number of Montenegrins, Selenča and Kovačica with a majority Slovak population. Due to the extremely heterogeneous ethnic structure and the high degree of coexistence of many nationalities, multiethnicity represents an anthropogenic potential. The tourist destination of Vojvodina must be positioned as a destination whose differences and peculiarities will represent its comparative advantage, in a way that they will be united into a single market and spatially connected whole. Today, tourists want to experience new inspiration and are looking for unusual places and cultures, which Vojvodina as a multicultural environment can offer them.

Serbia, as well as its northern province of Vojvodina, needs a branding strategy and a vision of where to go. On the recommendation of experts in the field of marketing, the Branding Council of Serbia was formed. Their job is to improve the image, which is a very challenging and demanding job. The job of branding requires a lot of time, effort and investment, as well as the compliance of all actors in the process. Until that is achieved, successful Serbian and Vojvodina companies, sports events, cultural events, authentic tourist destinations, people who represent Vojvodina in the best light, can do more to improve the image than a well-designed brand.

Vojvodina, with its key values of a region with a rich past, which respects traditional values, is inhabited by peaceful and hospitable people, has realistic prospects to become a desirable tourist destination and to improve the tourist image of Serbia. Currently, tourism in Vojvodina is underrepresented and accounts for only 1% of the total GDP of the Province. Vojvodina participates in the total income of Serbia from tourism with about 15%. The current problem is small accommodation capacities, insufficient financial investments in projects important for the competitiveness of the region and the centralization of the system that limits the use of natural and cultural potentials of the region.

The development of tourism in Vojvodina would be achieved by designing a brand that would be adequately communicated to the target segments.


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Appleyard, N. (2013) Tourism and Travel. Harlow: Pearson Edition
Arsenijević, O. (2016) Upravljanje znanjem. Beograd: Fakultet za poslovne studije i pravo
Arsenijević, O., Jovanović, L., Radosavljević, M. (2017) Relationship between organizational climate and management effectiveness. Industrija, vol. 45, br. 1, str. 61-80
Bakić, O., Nikolić, V.M. (2002) Osnove turizma i ugostiteljstva. Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva
Bogdanov, N. (2015) Ruralni razvoj i ruralna politika. Beograd: Mikro knjiga
Bošković, T., Mihajlović, M. (2016) Savremene tendencije na međunarodnom turističkom tržištu. Škola biznisa, br. 1, str. 121-126
Bubulj, M., Arsenijević, O., Simić, J. (2011) The impact of organizational culture on the development of the achievement motive among university students. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(6): 481-488
Canfield, J., Switzer, J. (2018) The success principles. HarperCollins e-books
Clemmons, R.M. (2002) The Complete Idiot's Guide to Knowledge Management. Indianapolis: Alpha Books
Erjavec, K., Arsenijević, O., Starc, J. (2018) Satisfaction with managers' use of communication channels and its effect on employee-organisation relationships. Journal for East European Management Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 559-578
Gratzer, M., Werthner, H., Winiwarter, W. (2004) Electronic business in tourism. International Journal of Electronic Business, 2(5):450-459,
Grčić, M., Šantić, D. (2008) Osnove antropogeografije. Beograd: Geografaski fakultet
Greenbert, J., Baron, R. (1998) Behavior in Organizations. Pearson
Groff, T.R., Jones, T.P. (2003) Introduction to Knowledge Management: KM in Business. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1 edition
Jovanović, V. (2015) Tematski turizam. Beograd: Univerzitet Singidunum
Kovačević, T., Obradović, S. (2003) Mogućnosti afirmacije i razvoja turizma seoskog naselja Mišićevo u cilju održivog razvoja. Turizam, No. 7
Krivec, I. (2009) Blaga Vojvodine. Beograd: Čigoja štampa
Lovreta, S., Končar, J., Petković, G. (2018) Kanali marketinga - trgovina i ostali kanali. Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu-Ekonomski fakultet, ISBN: 978-86-403-1467-1
Maletić (1968) Vojvodina - znamenite ličnosti i lepote. Novi Sad
Nedeljković, D. (2018) Multikulturalnost u programu javnog servisa Vojvodine. Medijski dijalozi, No. 31
Pavlović, M. (1998) Geografija Jugoslavije. Beograd: Savremena administracija
Pivac, T. (2012) Vinski turizam Vojvodine. Novi Sad: PMF
Spasić, V., Pavlović, D. (2018) Poslovanje turističkih agencija i organizatora putovanja. Beograd: Univerzitet Singidunum
Stankić, M., Stankić, R. (2012) Informatika u turizmu. Beograd: Visoka turistička škola strukovnih studija
Stojanović, J. (2014) Savremene tendencije u turizmu. u: E-business in tourism and hospitality industry: Sinteza 2014, Beograd
Štetić, S., Šimičević, D. (2014) Menadžment turističke destinacije. Beograd: Univerzitet Singidunum
Vlada Republike Srbije-Ministarstvo trgovine, turizma i telekomunikacija (2016) Strategija razvoja turizma Republike Srbije za period 2016-2025.
Vuković, I. (2000) Međunarodna ekonomija i turizam. Zagreb: Dalmatina

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/bastina31-30531
primljen: 21.01.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 26.06.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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