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2022, vol. 67, br. 1, str. 13-28
Uticaj organskog i mikrobiološkog đubriva na morfološke i produktivne osobine tritikalea u sistemu organske proizvodnje
aInstitute Tamiš, Pančevo
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Srbija
cInstitut za povrtarstvo, Smederevska Palanka, Srbija
dUniverzitet Privredna akademija u Novom Sadu, Fakultet za ekonomiju i inženjerski menadžment - FIMEK, Srbija
eUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Srbija

e-adresaroljevic@institut-tamis.rs
Projekat:
Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije

Ključne reči: tritikale; visina stabla; dužina klasa; masa zrna; plodni klasići; broj zrna; prinos; mikrobiološko đubrivo; organsko đubrivo
Sažetak
Cilj istraživanja bio je ispitivanje uticaja biohumusa i biofertilizatora na morfološke i produktivne osobine tritikalea u trogodišnjem periodu (2009/10-2011/12). Poljski ogled je postavljen kao dvofaktorijalni, po metodi blok sistema sa slučajnim rasporedom tretmana u četiri ponavljanja. Predmet ispitivanja bila je ozima sorta tritikalea, Odisej, a ispitivan je uticaj sledećih tretmana: kontrola bez đubrenja, biofertilizator (5,0 l ha-1 ), biohumus (3,0 t ha-1 ) + biofertilizator (5,0 l ha-1 ). Rezultati su pokazali da spoljašnja sredina ima značajan uticaj na ekspresiju ispitivanih osobina. Najmanje vrednosti dobijene su u prvoj godini, koja je imala i najnepovoljnije meteorološke uslove. Đubrenje je imalo statistički značajan uticaj na većinu ispitivanih osobina. Primena biofertilizatora nije uticala na dužinu stabla i masu zrna u klasu, ali je značajno povećala broj plodnih klasića (3,7%), dužinu klasa (7,7%) i prinos zrna (18,6%). Kombinovanom primenom đubriva postignuti su bolji rezultati za sve ispitivane osobine, a razlike u odnosu na kontrolu bez đubrenja kretale su se u nivou od 4,3% za broj plodnih klasića do 46,5% kod prinosa zrna. Najjača korelaciona povezanost ustanovljena je između dužine klasa i broja plodnih klasića (r = 0,939**). Dobijeni rezultati upućuju na zaključak da, u promenljivim uslovima spoljašnje sredine, primena dobro izbalansiranih formula organskih i mikrobioloških đubriva ima značajan uticaj na morfološke i produktivne osobine tritikalea, a samim tim na stabilnost proizvodnje ovog useva u sistemu organskog gajenja.

Introduction

Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is the first artificial type of cereals obtained by crossing wheat (Triticum spp.) as the mother plant and rye (Secale cerale) as the pollinator. Triticale possesses the genetic yield potential of wheat and the efficient use of nutritive matter of rye (Ayalew et al., 2018; Wójcik-Gront and Studnicki, 2021). It is resistant to abiotic stress (Deng et al., 2020), very modest in its soil requirements (Łysoń and Biel, 2016; Kavanagh and Hall, 2015), resistant to diseases (Góral et al., 2019), has a higher yield potential of grain (Roques et al., 2017) and forage mass (Estrada-Campuzano et al., 2012) than common wheat, especially on low-quality soils (Belović et al., 2020). Its high crop coverage enables intercepting sunlight, shading and controlling weeds (Ayalew et al., 2018), as well as protecting soil from unfavorable meteorological conditions. The strong root and the ability to efficiently absorb nitrogen enable the cultivation of triticale after the crops that leave great quantities of this macroelement in the soil, thus decreasing its leaching and running off from agricultural land (Ketterings et al., 2015).

Triticale is grown on 3,807,661 ha worldwide, with an average grain yield of 3.7 t ha-1. The primary world producer is Poland (34.5% of world area) (FAO, 2019). It is mainly used as animal feed, forage crop as well as for biogas production (Randhawa et al., 2015). It is not substantially present in the human diet, although its nutritive value is significantly higher than that of common wheat (Doxastakis et al., 2002). The high presence of albumins and globulins and simultaneously a lower content of the prolamin protein (gliadin) improve the digestibility of triticale-based products (Burešová et al., 2010). Triticale has around 20% higher content of essential amino acid lysine compared to common wheat, while its aleurone layer contains a large amount of minerals and fibre (Burešová et al., 2010). Some studies have proved the presence of lunasine in the triticale grain. Lunasine is a peptide that is reported to have cancer-preventive and anti-inflammatory properties and to prevent a high level of cholesterol in the blood (Nakurte et al., 2012). In the food industry, it is very important in preparing special bread types containing different kinds of cereal grains, while it is more appropriate than common wheat in the production of cakes, muffins, tortillas and pancakes. Triticale flour obtained by complex grinding contains 14-15% of proteins (Tohver et al., 2005). However, due to the lower gluten content, triticale-based bread characteristics are estimated to be poorer than those of common wheat bread.

Triticale grain yield and quality are impacted by the genotype, agroecological conditions and growing technology, primarily the application of fertilizers. Results of previous examinations showed that the application of nitrogen (Lalević and Biberdžić, 2016), as well as the application of mineral fertilizers with the increased content of phosphorus and potassium (Lalević et al., 2019), had a positive effect on the yield and yield components of winter triticale. In addition, it was determined that the nitrogen application had a significant impact on the technological quality of this cereal grain, while the highest gluten content was recorded in the variant with the highest dose of nitrogen fertilizer (Zečević et al., 2010). From the point of view of sustainable agriculture, there are significant positive effects of organic fertilizers on morphological and productive characteristics of triticale (Roljević Nikolić et al., 2020). Parvin et al. (2020) concluded that the foliar application of 200 mg l-1 humic acid in the flag leaf stage led to the maximum triticale grain yield, while Kheirizadeh Arough et al. (2016). recommended the application of biofertilizers for the profitable production of triticale, particularly under water-limitation conditions. The four-year research by Sautkina and Cheverdin (2020) showed that the presowing nitrogen application at a dose of 30 kg ha-1 could be replaced by biofertilizer application in the production technology of winter triticale.

Owing to its modest requirements regarding climatic and soil conditions and agricultural practices, triticale can be grown in marginal areas. Consequently, farmers, particularly those engaged in the organic farming system, find it increasingly popular (Feledyn-Szewczyk et al., 2020). Under low-investment conditions, triticale provides a 100% higher yield than common wheat, durum wheat and barley (Benbelkacem, 2004). Studies have shown that in the years with favorable meteorological conditions, it provides almost the identical yield in the organic and conventional field farming systems, while in the years with poorer conditions, triticale yield is slightly lower in organic farming (Kronberga, 2008). Kronberga (2008) claims that in the years with favorable meteorological conditions, the selection of the appropriate cultivar provides the possibility of obtaining a higher yield, greater protein content in the grain and higher 1,000-grain weight in organic farming than in conventional farming.

The aim of the paper is to examine the impact of microbiological and organic fertilizers on morphological and productive characteristics of triticale depending on weather conditions during three vegetation seasons in the organic farming system. Examining the relationship between morphological and productive characteristics can contribute to creating more adaptable and productive triticale cultivars in low input systems.

Material and Methods

Site description. The examination of the impact of microbiological and organic fertilizers on morphological and productive characteristics of winter triticale was conducted at "Radmilovac" (44°45′21.18″ N, 20°34′43.27″ E; 130 m a.m.s.l.) on the leached chernozem soil type of the following properties: pH (in H2O) 8.04, N 0.13%, P2O5 22.18 mg, K2O 19.10 mg, average humus content in the plow-layer 2.45%. The experiment was realized using the method of a randomized complete block design with four replications during three years (2009/10-2011/12). The elementary plot area was 6 m2. Sowing was done manually with the sowing density of 550 germinating seeds per m-2.

The weather conditions during the three-year period (Figure 1) showed certain deviations from the usual characteristics of climate in the production regions.

Figure 1 Average monthly air temperatures (°C) and precipitation sums (mm)

Source: Republic Hydro-meteorological Service of Serbia [27]

The average annual temperatures during the examinations were significantly higher than the long-term average (10.8°C).

Regarding the weather conditions, the 2009/10 season was very unfavorable (12.1°C, 878 mm). The pronounced water excess in the soil during the sowing period, abundant precipitation in sensitive developmental phases (heading), as well as high temperatures in the grain ripening phases, had an unfavorable impact on the growth and development, as well on total crop productivity.

During the research year of 2010/11, the average annual temperature was higher by 0.7°C than the long-term average, with the greatest deviation in November (+5.2°C), April (+2.1°C) and June (+1.7°C), while the lower average temperatures were recorded in October (-2.0°C), February (-1.8°C) and May (-0.4°C). The precipitation sum (495 mm) was lower than the long-term average (588 mm), particularly in April (47.8 mm) and June (59.5 mm).

Although in the third year (2011/12), the precipitation sum (485 mm) was lower than the long-term average, the abundant snowfall in February and retention of snow cover slowed down the vegetation in spring. Consequently, the heading and flowering phases occurred later. In addition, higher air temperatures in June and July 2012 reduced the period of grain filling and induced accelerated maturity.

Materials. The object of the study was the triticale winter cultivar Odisej. The Odisej cultivar has an excellent resistance to cold and lodging and a very good resistance to diseases. Regarding its maturity time, it belongs to the group of very early cultivars. Its 1,000-grain weight ranges from 47 to 49 g, its hectolitre weight from 75 to 79 kg, while its protein content is at the level of 12-14%.

 The experiment comprised the following treatments:
 T1 − control-without the application of microbiological and organic fertilizers;
 T2 − microbiological fertilizer (5.0 l ha-1);
 T3 − organic fertilizer (3.0 t ha-1) + microbiological fertilizer (5.0 l ha-1).
 For crop nutrition in spring in the BBCH 31-33 phase, a microbiological fertilizer "Slavol" ("Agrounik" Serbia) - the liquid foliar microbiological fertilizer was used of the following content: Bacillus megaterium 10-6 cm3, Bacillus licheniformis 10-6 cm3, Bacillus suptilis 10-6 cm3, Azotobacter chroococcum 10-6 cm3, Azotobacter vinelandii 10-6 cm3, Derxia sp. 10-6 cm3.

To improve and maintain the soil fertility, organic fertilizer "Biohumus Royal offert" ("Altamed," Serbia) was used as the organic fertilizer, certified for use in organic farming, plowed in the autumn with the primary tillage in order to improve the content of nutritive matter, primarily phosphorus. The chemical characteristics were: pH in H2O 8.63, N 2.2%; P2O5 4.8% and K2O 2.8%.

Triticale was grown in four crop rotations: maize → winter triticale → spring barley+red clover → red clover. Tillage was done with moldboard plow in September, while the presowing preparation of soil was done with a disc harrow and a harrow in the second half of October. Crop protection was not conducted except for the mechanical weed control on the paths between the plots. The harvest was conducted by a combine harvester for experiments in the full crop maturity phase. The grain yield was measured based on the whole elementary plot, calculated at 14% moisture content and expressed in kg ha-1.

Sample collection. In all three years, immediately prior to the harvest, 10 whole plants from each elementary plot were collected by random sampling.

The examined morphological characteristics were: the stem height (cm) and spike length (cm), while the following productive characteristics were determined: spike weight (g), grain weight per spike (g), number of fertile spikelets, grain number per spike and grain yield (kg ha-1).

Statistical analysis. Data on the yield were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software, 19.0). The comparisons among the different fertilization treatments were made with the least significant difference (LSD) test. The correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the examined characteristics. Statistical significance was determined at the level of p < 0.05.

Results and Discussion

Stem height, which is a quantitative characteristic and an indirect component of grain yield, is greatly influenced not only by the genotype but by the environment as well (Đekić et al., 2019). The results of the analysis of the variance of this research showed a significant impact of the year and fertilization on the stem height (Table 1).

Table 1. Results of the analysis of variance

Source Traits Type III Sum of
squares
Mean square F Sig.
Year Stem height 680.217 340.109 11.138 0.001
Spike length 67.022 33.511 70.785 0.000
Spike weight 10.714 5.357 23.622 0.000
Grain weight per spike 2.789 1.395 60.773 0.000
No. of fertile spikelets 240.090 120.045 153.758 0.000
No. of grains per spike 7129.023 3564.511 74.551 0.000
Yield 9593706.936 4796853.468 23.001 0.000
Treatment Stem height 234.876 117.438 3.846 0.041
Spike length 7.043 3.522 7.439 0.004
Spike weight 1.295 0.648 2.856 0.084
Grain weight per spike 0.376 0.188 8.191 0.003
No. of fertile spikelets 5.587 2.794 3.578 0.049
No. of grains per spike 207.481 103.740 2.170 0.143
Yield 8955456.080 4477728.040 21.471 0.000
Year x
Tretment
Stem height 24.984 6.246 0.205 0.933
Spike length 0.559 0.140 0.295 0.877
Spike weight 0.175 0.044 0.193 0.939
Grain weight per spike 0.011 0.003 0.115 0.976
No. of fertile spikelets 0.261 0.065 0.084 0.986
No. of grains per spike 129.281 32.320 0.676 0.617
Yield 1123869.358 280967.339 1.347 0.291

The greatest average stem height was recorded in the third year (82.89 cm), which was significantly higher than in the first year (17%). The differences were also influenced by the fertilization treatments (Table 2, Table 3).

Table 2. Morphological and productive traits of the cv. Odisej in the three-year period

Year Treatment Average
T1 T2 T3
Stem height (cm)
2009/2010 66.82 71.73 74.03 70.86
2010/2011 73.58 80.32 83.29 79.06
2011/2012 80.70 82.82 85.16 82.89
Average 73.70 78.29 80.83
Spike length (cm)
2009/2010 6.99 7.88 8.62 7.83
2010/2011 10.00 10.90 11.26 10.72
2011/2012 11.08 11.46 11.93 11.49
Average 9.36 10.08 10.60
Spike weight (g)
2009/2010 15.20 16.93 18.00 16.71
2010/2011 28.00 30.97 35.27 31.41
2011/2012 25.43 27.53 31.40 28.12
Average 22.88 25.14 28.22
Grain weight per spike (g)
2009/2010 1.05 1.15 1.28 1.16
2010/2011 1.64 1.72 1.96 1.77
2011/2012 1.77 1.86 2.07 1.90
Average 1.49 1.58 1.77
Number of fertile spikelets
2009/2010 19.60 20.27 20.73 20.20
2010/2011 25.00 25.90 26.00 25.63
2011/2012 26.47 27.53 27.43 27.14
Average 23.69 24.57 24.72
Number of grains per spike
2009/2010 29.90 30.60 31.20 30.57
2010/2011 64.15 69.03 77.87 70.35
2011/2012 48.73 52.23 54.03 51.67
Average 47.59 50.62 54.37
Yield (kg ha-1)
2009/2010 2,429.00 2,938.17 3,393.17 2,920.11
2010/2011 2,691.50 3,667.00 4,708.70 3,689.07
2011/2012 3,909.20 4,108.33 5,127.02 4,381.52
Average 3,009.90 3,571.17 4,409.63

Table 3. The least significant difference (LSD) test

Traits a level 2009/2010−2011/2012 Y*T
Y T
Stem height 0.05 4.74 4.74 -
0.01 6.50 6.50 -
Spike length 0.05 0.59 0.59 -
0.01 0.81 0.81 -
Spike weight 0.05 0.41 - -
0.01 0.56 - -
Grain weight per spike 0.05 0.13 0.13 -
0.01 0.18 0.18 -
Number of fertile spikelets 0.05 0.76 0.76 -
0.01 1.04 1.04 -
Number of grains per spike 0.05 5.93 5.93
0.01 8.13 8.13
Yield 0.05 391.51 391.51 -
0.01 536.93 536.93 -

Y – year; T – treatment

The average stem height recorded in the treatment with the combined application of microbiological and organic fertilizers (80.83 cm) was significantly higher than the one in the control treatment (by 9.7%). In contrast, the independent use of microbiological fertilizer did not significantly impact the increase in the stem height (by 3.2%). The interaction of the examined factors (Y x T) did not have a significant impact on the triticale stem height, and similar results were also registered in other studies (Roljević Nikolić et al., 2020).

A spike has an important role not only as a direct holder of yield and grain, but owing to its large surface area, it also participates in photosynthesis, organic matter production and grain filling (Đekić et al., 2012). A longer spike has a greater ability to photosynthesis, which, along with mineral nutrition, directly affects the intensity of organic matter production and a larger number of fertile florets in a spikelet (Miralles and Slafer, 2007). In addition, a spike of greater length is most commonly correlated with a higher grain number per spike (Roljević Nikolić et al., 2020). Spike length was found to be significantly affected by year and fertilization (Table 1). During the three-year research, the average spike length of the cv. Odisej amounted to 10.01 cm. The greatest average spike length was recorded in the third year (11.49 cm), which was higher by 46.7% and 7.2% than in the first and the second year, respectively. There were significant differences between the fertilization treatments (Table 2 and Table 3). Namely, the spike length of the cv. Odisej recorded in the treatment using the combined application of microbiological and organic fertilizers (10.60 cm) and in the treatment using only the microbiological fertilizer (10.08 cm) was higher by 13.4% and 7.7%, respectively, than in the control variant (Table 2).

The impact of the years on the spike weight was primarily expressed in the differences regarding the amount and distribution of precipitation, as well as the air temperature fluctuations. Greater soil moisture in the first year favoured weed growth, which had an additional impact on the total above-ground weight of the cultivated plants (previous research by Roljević Nikolić et al., 2017; 2020). Therefore, the average spike weight in the first year (1.67 g) was significantly lower than in the second (3.14 g) and the third year (2.8 g), i.e. by 46.8% and 40.6%, respectively. Although the impact of fertilization, as well as the interaction of the examined factors, was not significant (Table 1), it can be noticed that the spike weight in the control variant was lower than in the variants where fertilizers were applied in all years. On average, this difference amounted to 9.9% in treatment T2, and 23.4% in treatment T3 in comparison to the control (Table 2).

On the other hand, the grain weight per spike was significantly impacted by the fertilizer application (Table 1). The recorded average value in the T3 treatment was greater by 19.1% and 12.1% than in T1 and T2, representing significant differences (Table 2 and Table 3). During the research, the average grain weight per spike ranged from 1.16 g in the first research year to 1.90 g in the third year, which also represents a significant difference. Although the interaction of the studied factors (Y x T) did not significantly affect this productive characteristic, the obtained results showed that the greatest differences between the control and the variants with the applied fertilizers were registered in the first research year (T1 - 9.8% and T2 - 22.2%). In addition, it was determined that, in the variants with the applied fertilizers, the grain weight per spike had a smaller coefficient of variation (T2 7.6% and T3 6.6%) in comparison to the control (T1 8.3%), which highlights the significance of fertilizer application from the aspect of production stability as well.

One of the most important components of cereal yield is the grain number per spike. The grain number per spike results from several parameters (spike length, number of spikelets, number of florets per spikelet), which may vary significantly depending on agro-ecological conditions. The average grain number per spike recorded for the cv. Odisej amounted to 50.86, with significant differences between the years (Table 2 and Table 3). The greatest average grain number per spike was recorded in the second year (70.35), which was greater by 130.2% and 36.2% than in the first and third year, respectively. The application of fertilizers did not show a significant impact on this characteristic, but the values obtained in the control were smaller by 6.0% and 12.5% on average than in the fertilization treatments T2 and T3, respectively (Table 2). Examining the impact of mineral fertilizers on the productive and morphological characteristics of spelt wheat, Glamočlija et al. (2012) concluded that adding mineral fertilizers had a statistically significant impact on the stem length and spike length, while no statistical significance was recorded for the number of spikelets per spike, grain number per spike and 1,000-grain weight, although the values of these characteristics were greater in the treatment including fertilizers than in the control. These findings are in accordance with our research results.

Heading and flowering phases represent a very important determinant of seasonal and regional adaptation of cereal cultivars (Trkulja et al., 2011). The adaptations are reflected in avoiding low air temperatures in flowering time (which can cause male sterility), as well as avoiding high temperatures and droughts during the grain filling phase. The significant impact of the year was determined on the number of fertile spikelets per spike (Table 1). The average number in the third year (27.14) was significantly greater in comparison to the first (20.20) and the second year (25.63) (Table 2 and Table 3). The application of microbiological fertilizer had an impact on the increase in the number of fertile spikelets by 3.7%, while the application of microbiological and organic fertilizers increased the number of fertile spikelets by 4.3%. This represents a significant difference in comparison to the control. The analysis of the data presented in Table 1, indicates that the best result of the application of microbiological fertilizer was recorded in the third year (4.0%), while the best result of the combined application of microbiological and organic fertilizers was registered in the first research year (5.8%). During the research, variation in the number of fertile spikelets was the lowest in the T3 treatment (11.7%).

In the applied organic farming technology, the three-year average yield of the Odisej cultivar amounted to 3,664 kg ha-1, which is by 40-60% lower in comparison to the yields stated by Glamočlija (2004) obtained under conventional farming conditions. The impact of the year on yield was significant and the greatest grain yield was recorded in the third year (4,381.52 kg ha-1), while the significantly lower was registered in the first research year (2,920.11 kg ha-1) (Table 1 and Table 2). In terms of weather conditions, the vegetation season of 2009/10 was very unfavorable. Greater soil moisture had a negative impact on the mineralization of the organic fertilizer and the availability of nutritive matter. In addition, abundant precipitation occurred in the periods of the sensitive development phases, which had an unfavorable effect on the productivity of the cv. Odisej in the first year. Some other studies also underlined that the moisture excess in autumn had a negative effect on the growth and development of triticale (Wójcik-Gront and Studnicki, 2021).

The analysis of variance determined a significant impact of the examined fertilization treatments on the grain yield (Table 1 and Table 3). The best result was recorded in the T3 treatment, where the grain yield was greater by 46.5% than in the control (Table 2). The effect of fertilizer application was somewhat weaker since the recorded increase in the yield amounted to 18.6%. The positive impact of the fertilizer application on the grain yield of the Odisej cultivar in conventional farming was noticed by Lalević et al. (2019). They stated that the variant with the lowest nitrogen amount had a significantly lower yield than the other fertilization variants. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the grain yield variations in the control (21.4%) were greater than in the variants with the applied fertilizers (T1 - 13.5% and T2 - 16.8%), which indicates that the application of fertilizers in the organic production of triticale was significant not only from the aspect of grain yield but also from the aspect of the stability of grain yield.

The results of the correlation analysis show that there was a positive and significant correlation between the studied traits of the Odisej cultivar (Table 4).

Table 4. The coefficient of correlation between analyzed morphological and productive characteristics of the triticale cv. Odisej cultivated in the system of organic production in the three-year period

Traits Stem
height
Spike
length
Spike
weight
Grain weight
per spike
Number of
fertile spikelets
Number of
grains per spike
Yield
Stem
height
1 .742** .609** .666** .754** .545** .800**
Spike
length
1 .847** .904** .939** .725** .697**
Spike
weight
1 .814** .828** .907** .555**
Grain
weight per
spike
1 .915** .723** .680**
Number of
fertile
spikelets
1 .749** .667**
Number of
grains
per spike
1 .443*
Yield 1

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level, *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level

The stem height has a positive and significant correlation with all the studied characteristics: spike length (r = 0.742**) and spike weight ( r= 0.609**), number of fertile spikelets (r = 0.754**), grain number per spike (r = 0.545**) and grain weight per spike (r = 0.666**), and grain yield (r = 0.800**) (Table 3). However, the strongest correlation was determined between the spike length and the number of fertile spikelets (r = 0.939**), where a 1-cm increase in the spike length increased the number of fertile spikelets by 0.3 (y = -0.106 + 0.315xi). Also, the grain weight per spike had a significant correlation with the spike length (r = 0.904**).

Grain formation and yield production occur primarily at the expense of decomposition and translocation of reserve compounds from older and photosynthetically inactive plant parts, such as the stem and older leaves, into the spike. It has been estimated that reserves of carbohydrates in the stem contribute to the total wheat yield by approximately 10-12% under optimal agro-ecological conditions and by more than 40% during droughts and heat stress conditions (Evans and Wardlaw, 2017). Therefore, the determined strong positive correlation between the stem height and grain yield (r = 0.800**) needs attention in breeding Otherwise, a drastic decrease of stem height can significantly decrease the complete biomass, and consequently the grain yield (Madić et al., 2016).

Conclusion

Organic farming of winter triticale is characterized by a great impact of weather conditions on all the studied morphological and productive characteristics. The lowest values of all characteristics were recorded in the first year, which was characterized by the greatest amount of precipitation and the highest average air temperatures. Although fertilization had a positive impact on the examined characteristics, there were no significant effects regarding the spike weight and grain number per spike. The application of biofertilizer significantly increased the number of fertile spikelets (3.7%), spike length (7.7%) and grain yield (18.6%), while the combined application of biohumus and biofertilizer significantly increased the stem length (9.7%), spike length (13.3%), grain weight per spike (19.1%), number of fertile spikelets (4.3%), as well as the grain yield (46.5%) in comparison with the control. It was determined that the characteristics such as stem length and spike length, grain weight per spike and grain weight had the greatest coefficient of variation in the control, which highlights the significance of the organic fertilizer application not only from the aspect of the grain yield but also from the aspect of yield stability. There was a positive and significant correlation between the examined characteristics, particularly between the spike length and the number of fertile spikelets. The obtained results show that, within low input systems such as organic farming, even under very changeable agro-ecological conditions during a season, the selection of well-balanced formulas of organic and microbiological fertilizers can have a positive impact on the expression of the genetic potential of the triticale.

Dodatak

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the Ministry for Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

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Burešová, I., Sedláčková, I., Faměra, O., & Lipavský, J. (2010). Effect of growing conditions on starch and protein content in triticale grain and amylose content in starch. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56(3), 99-104. [Crossref]
Đekić, V., Milivojević, J., Madić, M., Popović, V., Branković, S., Perišić, V., & Terzić, D. (2019). Grain yield and quality of two-row winter barley cultivars on an acid soil. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 20(1), 238-250. [Crossref]
Đekić, V., Popović, V., Milivojević, J., & Branković, S. (2012). Variability in spike of Kragujevac winter triticale varieties. Bilten za alternativne biljne vrste, 44(85), 13-20.
Deng, C., Zhang, Z., Yan, G., Wang, F., Zhao, L., Liu, N., Abudurezike, A., Li, Y., Wang, W., & Shi, S. (2020). Salt-responsive transcriptome analysis of triticale reveals candidate genes involved in the key metabolic pathway in response to salt stress. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-9. [Crossref]
Doxastakis, G., Zafiriadis, I., Irakli, M., Marlani, H., & Tananaki, C. (2002). Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties. Food Chemistry, 77(2), 219-227. [Crossref]
Estrada-Campuzano, G., Slafer, G.A., & Miralles, D.J. (2012). Differences in yield, biomass and their components between triticale and wheat grown under contrasting water and nitrogen environments. Field Crop Research, 128, 167-179. [Crossref]
Evans, L.T., & Wardlaw, I.F. (2017). Wheat. In: E. Zamski, & A.A. Schaffer, (Ed.). Photoassimilate distribution in plants and crops. (pp. 501-518). Routledge.
Feledyn-Szewczyk, B., Nakielska, M., Jończyk, K., Berbeć, A.K., & Kopiński, J. (2020). Assessment of the suitability of 10 winter triticale cultivars (x Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus) for organic agriculture: Polish case study. Agronomy (Basel), 10(8), 1144-1144. [Crossref]
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCL on 23.11.2021.
Glamočlija, Đ. (2004). Posebno ratarstvo žita i zrnene mahunarke. Beograd: Draganić.
Glamočlija, Đ., Dražić, M., Spasić, M., Zekić, N., & Milutinović, M. (2012). The influence of top dressing on morphological and productive properties of spelt wheat on degraded soil. In: D. Kovačević, (Ed.). International Scientific Symposium (Third) 'Agrosym Jahorina 2012', Jahorina, Book of Proceedings.
Góral, T., Wiśniewska, H., Ochodzki, P., Twardawska, A., & Walentyn-Góral, D. (2019). Resistance to fusarium head blight, kernel damage, and concentration of fusarium mycotoxins in grain of winter triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) Lines. Agronomy (Basel), 11(1). [Crossref]
Kavanagh, V., & Hall, L. (2015). Biology and biosafety. In: F. Eudes, (Ed.). Triticale. (pp. 3-13). Cham: Springer International Publishing. [Crossref]
Ketterings, Q.M., Swink, S.N., Duiker, S.W., Czymmek, K.J., Beegle, D.B., & Cox, W.J. (2015). Integrating cover crops for nitrogen management in corn systems on Northeastern U.S. dairies. Agronomy Journal, 107(4), 1365-1376. [Crossref]
Kheirizadeh, A.Y., Seyed, S.R., & Seyed, S.R. (2016). Bio fertilizers and zinc effects on some physiological parameters of triticale under water-limitation condition. Journal of Plant Interactions, 11(1), 167-177. [Crossref]
Kronberga, A. (2008). Selection criteria in triticale breeding for organic farming. Latvian Journal of Agronomy, 11, 89-94.
Lalević, D.N., & Biberdžić, M.O. (2016). Effects of rates of nitrogen on yield and yield components of winter triticale. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade), 61(2), 127-135. [Crossref]
Lalević, D.N., Biberdžić, M.O., Ilić, Z.S., Milenković, L.R., & Stojiljković, J.V. (2019). Productivity and quality of grains of tritikale varieties at various quantities of mineral nutrition. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade), 64(4), 341-352. [Crossref]
Łysoń, E., & Biel, W. (2016). The effect of the cultivation system of selected winter triticale grain (× Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus) cultivars on the nutritional value. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska. Sectio E, Agricultura, 71(1), 53-63.
Madić, M., Knežević, D., Paunović, A., & Đurović, D. (2016). Plant height and internode length as components of lodging resistance in barley. Acta agriculturae Serbica, 21(42), 99-106. [Crossref]
Miralles, D.J., & Slafer, G.A. (2007). Sink limitations to yield in wheat: How could it be reduced? Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 145, 139-149.
Nakurte, I., Klavins, K., Kirhnere, I., Namniece, J., Adlere, L., Matvejevs, J., Kronberga, A., Kokare, A., Strazdina, V., Legzdina, L., & Muceniece, R. (2012). Discovery of lunasin peptide in triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack). Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2), 510-514. [Crossref]
Parvin, L., Gharineh, M.H., Joghan, A., & Moshatati, A. (2020). The effect of different concentration of humic acid foliar application in development stages on morphological characteristics and yield of Triticale. Journal of Crop Production, 12(4), 77-92.
Randhawa, H., Bona, L., & Graf, R. (2015). Triticale breeding-progress and prospect. In: F. Eudes, (Ed.). Triticale. (pp. 15-32). Cham: Springer.
Republic Hydro-meteorological Service of Serbia.Retrieved from http://www.hidmet.gov.rs/latin/meteorologija/klimatologija_godisnjaci.php on 29.11.2021.
Roljević-Nikolić, S.M., Kovačević, D.Đ., & Dolijanović, Ž.K. (2017). Floristički sastav korova, morfološke i produktivne osobine genotipova različitih alternativnih vrsta pšenice u organskoj proizvodnji. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade), 62(3), 229-240.
Roljević-Nikolić, S., Dolijanović, Ž., Kovačević, D., Miodragović, R., & Kovačević, A. (2020). Effect of fertilization on weed infestation, morphological and productive traits of different alternative small grains. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26(4), 406-414.
Roques, S.E., Kindred, D.R., & Clarke, S. (2017). Triticale out-performs wheat on range of UK soils with a similar nitrogen requirement. Journal of Agricultural Science, 155(2), 261-281. [Crossref]
Sautkina, M., & Cheverdin, Y.I. (2020). Influence of biological preparations based on associative on the yield of winter triticale in the conditions of the south-east Central Chernozemic Area. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 422(1). [Crossref]
Tohver, M., Kann, A., Täht, R., Mihhalevski, A., & Hakman, J. (2005). Quality of triticale cultivars suitable for growing and bread-making in northern conditions. Food Chemistry, 89(1), 125-132. [Crossref]
Trkulja, D., Kondić-Špika, A., Brbaklić, L., & Kobiljski, B. (2011). Marker-trait association analysis for heading and flowering time in wheat by Single Marker Regression. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, 48(1), 113-120. [Crossref]
Wójcik-Gront, E., & Studnicki, M. (2021). Long-term yield variability of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) tested using a CART model. Agriculture, 11(2). [Crossref]
Zečević, V., Knežević, D., Bošković, J., & Milenković, S. (2010). Effect of nitrogen and ecological factors on quality of winter triticale cultivars. Genetika, 42(3), 465-474.
Reference
Ayalew, H., Kumssa, T.T., Butler, T.J., Ma, X.F. (2018) Triticale improvement for forage and cover crop uses in the southern great plains of the United States. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1130
Belović, M., Torbica, A., Škrobot, D., Tomić, J., Čabarkapa, I., Živančev, D., Štatkić, S., Aćin, V., Kukurová, K., Ciesarová, Z. (2020) Potencijalna primena sorte tritikalea 'Odisej' u proizvodnji čajnog peciva. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, vol. 57, br. 1, str. 8-13
Benbelkacem, A. (2004) Triticale in Algeria. u: Mergoum Mohamed, Gómez-Macpherson Helena [ur.] Triticale improvement and production, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 81-86
Burešová, I., Sedláčková, I., Faměra, O., Lipavský, J. (2010) Effect of growing conditions on starch and protein content in triticale grain and amylose content in starch. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56(No. 3), 99-104
Deng, C., Zhang, Z., Yan, G., Wang, F., Zhao, L., Liu, N., Abudurezike, A., Li, Y., Wang, W., Shi, S. (2020) Salt-responsive transcriptome analysis of triticale reveals candidate genes involved in the key metabolic pathway in response to salt stress. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-9
Doxastakis, G., Zafiriadis, I., Irakli, M., Marlani, H., Tananaki, C. (2002) Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties. Food Chemistry, 77(2), 219-227
Đekić, V., Milivojević, J., Madić, M., Popović, V., Branković, S., Perišić, V., Terzić, D. (2019) Grain yield and quality of two-row winter barley cultivars on an acid soil. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 20(1), 238-250
Đekić, V., Popović, V., Milivojević, J., Branković, S. (2012) Variability in spike of Kragujevac winter triticale varieties. Bilten za alternativne biljne vrste, vol. 44, br. 85, str. 13-20
Estrada-Campuzano, G., Slafer, G.A., Miralles, D.J. (2012) Differences in yield, biomass and their components between triticale and wheat grown under contrasting water and nitrogen environments. Field Crops Research, 128, 167-179
Evans, L.T., Wardlaw, I.F. (2017) Wheat. u: Zamski Eli, Schaffer Arthur A. [ur.] Photoassimilate distribution in plants and crops, Routledge, 501-518
Feledyn-Szewczyk, B., Nakielska, M., Jończyk, K., Berbeć, A.K., Kopiński, J. (2020) Assessment of the suitability of 10 winter triticale cultivars (x Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus) for organic agriculture: Polish case study. Agronomy, 10(8), 1144-1144
Glamočlija, Đ., Dražić, M., Spasić, M., Zekić, N., Milutinović, M. (2012) The influence of top dressing on morphological and productive properties of spelt wheat on degraded soil. u: Kovačević D. [ur.] Third International Scientific Symposium 'Agrosym Jahorina 2012', Jahorina, Book of Proceedings
Glamočlija, Đ. (2004) Posebno ratarstvo žita i zrnene mahunarke. Beograd: Draganić
Góral, T., Wiśniewska, H., Ochodzki, P., Twardawska, A., Walentyn-Góral, D. (2019) Resistance to fusarium head blight, kernel damage, and concentration of fusarium mycotoxins in grain of winter triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) Lines. Agronomy, 11 (1), 16
Kavanagh, V., Hall, L. (2015) Biology and biosafety. u: Eudes F. [ur.] Triticale, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 3-13
Ketterings, Q.M., Swink, S.N., Duiker, S.W., Czymmek, K.J., Beegle, D.B., Cox, W.J. (2015) Integrating cover crops for nitrogen management in corn systems on Northeastern U.S. dairies. Agronomy Journal, 107(4), 1365-1376
Kheirizadeh, A.Y., Seyed, S.R., Seyed, S.R. (2016) Bio fertilizers and zinc effects on some physiological parameters of triticale under water-limitation condition. Journal of Plant Interactions, 11(1), 167-177
Kronberga, A. (2008) Selection criteria in triticale breeding for organic farming. Latvian Journal of Agronomy, 11, 89-94
Lalević, D.N., Biberdžić, M.O. (2016) Effects of rates of nitrogen on yield and yield components of winter triticale. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 61, br. 2, str. 127-135
Lalević, D.N., Biberdžić, M.O., Ilić, Z.S., Milenković, L.R., Stojiljković, J.V. (2019) Productivity and quality of grains of tritikale varieties at various quantities of mineral nutrition. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade), vol. 64, br. 4, str. 341-352
Łysoń, E., Biel, W. (2016) The effect of the cultivation system of selected winter triticale grain (× Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus) cultivars on the nutritional value. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska. Sectio E, Agricultura, 71 (1), 53-63
Madić, M., Knežević, D., Paunović, A., Đurović, D. (2016) Plant height and internode length as components of lodging resistance in barley. Acta agriculturae Serbica, vol. 21, br. 42, str. 99-106
Miralles, D.J., Slafer, G.A. (2007) Sink limitations to yield in wheat: how could it be reduced?. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 145, 139-149
Nakurte, I., Klavins, K., Kirhnere, I., Namniece, J., Adlere, L., Matvejevs, J., Kronberga, A., Kokare, A., Strazdina, V., Legzdina, L., Muceniece, R. (2012) Discovery of lunasin peptide in triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack). Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2), 510-514
Parvin, L., Gharineh, M.H., Khodaei,, Joghan, A., Moshatati, A. (2020) The effect of different concentration of humic acid foliar application in development stages on morphological characteristics and yield of Triticale. Journal of Crop Production, 12(4), 77-92
Randhawa, H., Bona, L., Graf, R. (2015) Triticale breeding-progress and prospect. u: Eudes F. [ur.] Triticale, Cham: Springer, 15-32
Roljević-Nikolić, S., Dolijanović, Ž., Kovačević, D., Miodragović, R., Kovačević, A. (2020) Effect of fertilization on weed infestation, morphological and productive traits of different alternative small grains. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26(4), 406-414
Roljević-Nikolić, S.M., Kovačević, D.Đ., Dolijanović, Ž.K. (2017) Floristički sastav korova, morfološke i produktivne osobine genotipova različitih alternativnih vrsta pšenice u organskoj proizvodnji. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade), vol. 62, br. 3, str. 229-240
Roques, S.E., Kindred, D.R., Clarke, S. (2017) Triticale out-performs wheat on range of UK soils with a similar nitrogen requirement. Journal of Agricultural Science, 155(2), 261-281
Sautkina, M., Cheverdin, Y.I. (2020) Influence of biological preparations based on associative on the yield of winter triticale in the conditions of the south-east Central Chernozemic Area. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 422 (1), 012028
Tohver, M., Kann, A., Täht, R., Mihhalevski, A., Hakman, J. (2005) Quality of triticale cultivars suitable for growing and bread-making in northern conditions. Food Chemistry, 89(1), 125-132
Trkulja, D., Kondić-Špika, A., Brbaklić, L., Kobiljski, B. (2011) Marker-trait association analysis for heading and flowering time in wheat by Single Marker Regression. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, vol. 48, br. 1, str. 113-120
Wójcik-Gront, E., Studnicki, M. (2021) Long-term yield variability of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) tested using a CART model. Agriculture, 11(2), 92
Zečević, V., Knežević, D., Bošković, J., Milenković, S. (2010) Effect of nitrogen and ecological factors on quality of winter triticale cultivars. Genetika, 42(3), 465-474
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.2298/JAS2201013R
primljen: 14.12.2021.
prihvaćen: 07.03.2022.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 08.04.2022.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
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