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2020, vol. 25, br. 50, str. 179-186
Approaches in cereal breeding
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
aUniverzitet u Prištini sa privremenim sedištem u Kosovskoj Mitrovici, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Lešak
bAgriculture University of Tirana, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Department of Chemistry, Koder - Kames, Tirana, Albania
cUniverzitet u Kragujevcu, Agronomski fakultet, Čačak
dUniverzitet u Kragujevcu, Prirodno-matematički fakultet
eUniverzitet u Nišu, Prirodno-matematički fakultet
fUniverzitet u Banjoj Luci, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Republika Srpska, BiH
gSerbian Chamber of Commerce, Belgrade
hCollege of Agriculture and Food Technology, Prokuplje
iMegatrend Univerzitet, Fakultet za biofarming, Bačka Topola

e-adresadeskoa@ptt.rs
Projekat:
Izučavanje genetičke osnove poboljšanja prinosa i kvaliteta strnih žita u različitim ekološkim uslovima (MPNTR - 31092)

Sažetak
Osnovni cilj oplemenjivanja biljaka je poboljšanje osobina kvaliteta, prinosa i otpornosti na stresne abiotičke i biotičke faktore. Pre hiljade godina ljudi su birali najbolje biljke, seme ili plod za proizvodnju semena za nove useve i hranu za ishranu ljudi i životinja. Savremeno oplemenjivanje biljaka zasnovano na genetičkim principima je doprinelo međusobnom povećanju prinosa i poboljšanju komponentni kvaliteta (sadržaj proteina, aminokiselina, masti, saharoze, mineralnih elemenata itd.). Oplemenjivači u programima konvencionalnog oplemenjivanja u poslednjih šest decenija su ostvarili promene fenotipova biljaka, značajno poboljšanje otpornosti na bolesti, ranostasnost, otpornost na mraz i sušu. Takođe je ostvareno poboljšanje tehnologije gajenja i unapređenje primene mera nege i zaštite i žetve biljaka, poboljšanje tehnologije mlevenja i pečenja, kao i tehnologije proizvodnje pića. Korišćenjem bioinformatike i poboljšane tehnologije, oplemenjivači su razvili načine za poboljšanje i ubrzavanje procesa hibridizacije, kombinujući osobine koje su poželjne da imaju novostvoreni genotipovi, kao i sprovođenje inženjeringa na nivou pojedinačnih ćelija i njihovih hromozoma. Danas se moderna biotehnologija koristi za poboljšanje ishrane ljudi i za razvoj genotipova sa znatno većim prinosom i kvalitetom u poređenju sa genotipovima stvorenim u konvencionalnom oplemenjivanju. Genetičkom modifikacijom moguće je dodati, izmeniti ili izbrisati (eliminisati) osobinu bez narušavanja dva kompletna genoma. Međutim, genetički modifikovani usevi mogu se koristiti nakon procene njihove bezbednosti za zdravlje ljudi, ocene bezbednosti hrane i životne sredine.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan
DOI: 10.5937/AASer2050179K
primljen: 25.10.2020.
prihvaćen: 25.11.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 12.01.2021.
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