Metrika

  • citati u SCIndeksu: 0
  • citati u CrossRef-u:0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[]
  • posete u poslednjih 30 dana:103
  • preuzimanja u poslednjih 30 dana:52

Sadržaj

članak: 1 od 2  
Back povratak na rezultate
2021, vol. 66, br. 3, str. 209-230
Tradicionalne i inovativne tehnologije sazrevanja destilata - uticaj na njihov kvalitet i sklonost potrošača prema sazrevanim alkoholnim pićima
aEkonomski institut, Beograd
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet organizacionih nauka
cInstitut za opštu i fizičku hemiju, Beograd

e-adresaveljovicsonja@gmail.com
Projekat:
Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije (institucija: Institut za opštu i fizičku hemiju, Beograd) (MPNTR - 451-03-68/2020-14/200051)

Ključne reči: sazrevanje; destilati; drvena burad; konjak; viski; rakije; senzorni atributi; preferencije potrošača; percepirani kvalitet
Sažetak
Sazrevanje je jedan od najvažnijih procesa proizvodnje visokokvalitetnih alkoholnih pića, uključujući viski, rakiju i konjak. Kontakt drveta i destilata je presudan korak za migraciju hemijskih jedinjenja koja evociraju nova senzorna svojstva konačnih proizvoda. Novi ukus je ugodan za vrlo široku grupu potrošača i zavisi od kulturološki uslovljenih preferencija. Da bi se demistifikovala glavna hemijska jedinjenja, koja doprinose aromi, njihovo povezivanje sa senzornim profilom alkoholnih pića, koja su starila u buradima je presudan korak za ubrzanje vrlo dugotrajnog procesa, bez smanjenja kvaliteta. Na obrasce konzumiranja alkoholnih pića uticali su promenjene sklonosti potrošača i povećana dostupnost različitih vrsta alkoholnih pića na tržištu. Izbor jedne vrste alkoholnih pića u odnosu na druge značajno je oblikovan spoljašnjim atributima pića i faktorima koji zavise od samih potrošača, ali izbor između različitih dostupnih opcija jedne vrste alkoholnog pića može se zasnivati na potrošačkoj percepciji njegovih specifičnih senzornih atributa. Stoga, kombinacija ukusa, arome, boje i drugih senzornih atributa alkoholnih pića može da oblikuje percipirani kvalitet od strane potrošača i generalno utiče na potencijal njihovog tržišnog uspeha.

Introduction

The alcoholic beverages industry is one of the most important food sectors with constantly growing interest of the industrial as well as scientific society (Babor, 2009). One potential reason for that is the fact that the global alcoholic beverage market was estimated at almost 1.5 trillion dollars in 2018 (Statista, 2020). Another reason is that the global alcoholic beverage market also grows annually by 7.7%, which is driven by multiple factors, such as consumer preferences, changing lifestyles, and expansion on the untraditional markets, such as China (Statista, 2020). Additionally, modern research has confirmed that moderate consumption of alcohol enriched with phenolic compounds has multiple positive effects on consumer health (e.g. reduction of the risks of coronary heart disease, certain cancer types, stroke, the elimination of Helicobacter pylori, etc.) (Dasgupta and Klein, 2014; Veljović, 2016).

Given the diverse nature of alcoholic beverages, they can be classified into three general groups: beer, spirit drinks, and wine (Dasgupta and Klein, 2014). Spirits are alcoholic beverages with a minimum alcoholic strength by a volume of 15% (EU Commision, 2019). The production of spirits generally includes the fermentation of various agricultural products containing carbohydrates, a distillation of fermented mixture, aging, and blending (Awad et al., 2017). Besides aromatic compounds originating from raw materials, compounds composed during the aging process are important contributors to overall sensory quality, authenticity, and uniqueness of spirit drinks (Conner et al., 2003; Pecić et al., 2012b; Pecić, 2015; Śliwińska et al., 2015; Wiśniewska et al., 2016; Canas, 2017; Veljović et al., 2019a).

Alcoholic beverages have been consumed since ancient times, and their consumption represents a common segment of social gatherings, as well as the culture of eating (Maharjan, 2019). Preferences of alcohol beverages and patterns of alcohol consumption are largely influenced by cultural and social norms, as well as the traditions of different countries (Song et al., 2018; Podstawski et al., 2019; Veljović et al., 2019b; Zasimova and Kolosnitsyna, 2020). In European culture, the consumption of alcoholic beverages is considered to be socially acceptable in many contexts and has an important role in a diet (Cravero et al., 2020). There are differences in Western and Eastern patterns of consumption. For example, in the Western culture, three categories of consumption of alcoholic beverages exist: aperitifs or pre-meal drinks, mid-meal drinks, and digestive or after-meal drinks, while in the Chinese culture, alcoholic beverages are only consumed during meals (Song et al., 2018).

This manuscript deals with the world's most important aged distilled spiritswhisky, cognac, and brandy. The production steps of these spirits are very similar, and most producers maintain that cask maturation and blending make a crucial contribution to the final character as well as sensory profiles of these aged spirits (Wiśniewska et al., 2016; Winstel and Marchal, 2019; Smailagić al., 2021). Consequently, the main focus is put on traditional and modern aging technology and its influence on sensory quality as well as consumers' preferences.

Overview of selected aged spirits

Whisky

Whisky (or whiskey) is a distilled spirit drink produced in many parts of the world (Buglass et al., 2011). According to historical data, Ireland is the country of whisky origin, while the first published data about whisky distilling was found in the Annals of Clonmacnoise dated from the year of 1405. The necessary skills for whisky distillation were brought to Scotland by missionary monks, and the earliest record of whisky production in this country dates from 1494 (Power et al., 2020). From the United Kingdom and Ireland, distillation practice expanded to countries that have been largely influenced by European emigrants, such as Canada, India and Japan. Nowadays, the United States, Canada and Japan are included among major producers (Power et al., 2020). Although the whisky technology expanded to other countries, Irish and Scotch whiskies still remain the two most valued European, as well as world whiskies, with globally recognized geographical indication.

Whisky is also an economically important spirit drink with a projected revenue of more than 87 billion in 2020, with the highest rate in India (with 19.2%) (Statista, 2020). In order to protect and standardize the quality of the whisky, basic requirements are defined by the Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2019/787 of the European Union (EU) (EU Commission, 2019). Thus, whisky is produced by distillation of a mash made from malted cereals, with or without whole grains of unmalted cereals, fermented by the action of yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae); and every distillation is carried out at less than 94.8% vol. Furthermore, the distillate has an aroma and taste typical for utilized raw materials. Aging of the final distillate is limited to at least three years in wooden casks not exceeding 700-liter capacity. However, the common commercial practice is that aging is much longer, sometimes even longer than 12 years (Roullier-Gall et al., 2020). Particularly for high-quality whisky, aging in a cask is longer than five years. Generally, the period from 15 to 21 years is considered to be the optimal period for aging malt whiskies, but, from the quality point of view, the longer period can be detrimental to overall quality (Buglass et al., 2011).

Brandy

Considering the brandy market at the global level, this broad segment, regulated by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, includes spirit drinks produced from very different raw materials, such as wine, grapes or different fruits (e-CFR, 2021). Namely, the selection of raw materials depends on local character, cost price, and availability. Consequently, due to all differences among them, there are no unique legal definitions of brandies. As well as whisky, the brandy market is generally profitable, and the projected revenue of this alcoholic beverage segment amounts to more than 60 billion dollars in 2020. In global comparison, most revenue is generated in the United States (22.7%) (Statista, 2020).

Under EEC 2019/787 (EU Commission, 2019), brandy (Weinbrand in German-speaking countries) is defined as a spirit drink produced by wine distillation at less than 94.8% vol. alcoholic strength. According to the regulation, a fresh distillate is required to mature in oak casks. Depending on cask capacity, the maturation time of brandy must be at least one year in oak casks or for at least six months in oak casks with a capacity of fewer than 1000 liters. The minimum alcoholic strength by volume of brandy is limited to 36%.

According to EEC 2019/787, fruit spirits, pomace spirits, and even grape brandy are not included under the term brandy. European countries have a long tradition in the production of fruit spirits, often known as fruit brandies. According to EEC 2019/787 (EU Commission, 2019), fruit spirits are defined as alcoholic beverages produced by the distillation of fermented fresh fruits or their must, with or without stones. The used type of fruits depends on the production tradition and the region of origin. Although maturation is not strictly required for fruit spirits, local fruit spirits are traditionally aged in wood casks for many years. Unlike whisky, the type of casks and the duration of maturation are not defined according to the international or local regulation for fruit spirits (Mosedale and Puech, 1998; Canas, 2017). Moreover, an ingrained belief is that the quality of aged spirit increases with the pronged aging period in wood casks, lasting even more than a few decades.

Differently from EU regulation, U.S. legislation defined fruit brandies as an alcoholic distillate from the fermented juice, mash, or wine of fruit or the residue thereof (e-CFR, 2021). Additionally, if the brandy has been stored in oak containers for less than two years, it must be labeled as immature.

Cognac

Among aged wine spirits, especially notable is a type known as cognac, produced in the Charentes region, nearly all of Charente Maritime, and some neighboring communities in Southwest France (Ferrari et al., 2004; Lurton et al., 2012). The production of cognac dates back to the 16th century and with the strictly regulated process (Canas, 2017). Thus, cognac is produced by twice distilling white wines produced in designated growing regions, also known as the Cognac region. After the distillation and during the aging process, the product is also called eau de vie, which means "a water of life" (Buglass et al., 2011).

As previously mentioned, for brandy, the wine spirit must be aged for at least one year or six months (Wiśniewska et al., 2016). However, cognac is a wine spirit with geographical indications, so the aging period lasts for at least two years. The importance of the cognac aging period is officially recognized under "Product specification for the cognac or eau-de-vie de cognac or eau-de-vie des Charentes controlled appellation of origin, and designations" based on the length of aging of the youngest eau-de-vie in the blend" (Official Journal of the French Republic, 2018).

Table 1. The minimum age of cognac wine spirits.

Term The star numbers
The aging years
*
3 Etoiles, Sélection, VS, De Luxe, Very Special and Millésime Compte 2
at least 2-year aging
Supérieur, Cuvée Supérieure and Qualité Supérieure Compte 3
at least 3-year aging
V.S.O.P., Réserve, Vieux, Rare, Royal and Very Superior Old Pale Compte 4
at least 4-year aging
Vieille Réserve, Réserve Rare, and Réserve Royale Compte 5
at least 5-year aging
Napoléon, Très Vieille Réserve, Très Vieux, Héritage, Très Rare, Excellence, and Suprême Compte 6
at least 6-year aging
XO, Hors d’âge, Extra, Ancestral, Ancêtre, Or, Gold, Impérial, Extra Old, XXO, and Extra Extra Old Compte 10
at least 10-year aging starting
XXO, and Extra Extra Old -
wine spirits that have been aged for at least 14 years.

*starting from 1 April, the year after the harvest.

According to this decision, different official labels of cognac are defined due to different years of aging, as summarized in Table 1.

Aging process

Wood packaging has been used in winemaking since pre-Christian times (Le Floch et al., 2015). In almost the same design since the Celts, wood casks have been used as the most reputable packing material for exclusive alcoholic beverages (Viriot et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 2015). Since distillation practice had not been common knowledge until the 15th century, the wood casks were first used exclusively as wooden containers for wine. After the commercialization of distillation, wood cask utilization for distillate aging became standard practice. Generally, in the early days of cask aging, the quality of cask was not of particular interest, so producers used any available cask (Buglass et al., 2011). During the centuries, the purpose of cask expanded beyond storing, so producers and consumers have come to recognize multiple benefits of aging in a wooden cask and its impact on the quality of the final spirit, mainly on sensory attributes.

The importance of the cooperage industry is proven by the value of global export, which is estimated at more than one billion dollars in 2020 (TradeMap, 2020). Furthermore, France and the United States were the dominant exporters with 51.2% and 23.1% of the total value, respectively. These data are expected since the main regions of famous oaks for cooperage have traditionally been France and the USA (Mosedale and Puech, 2003). According to TradeMap data (TradeMap, 2020), in 2020, the most dominant global importers of wood casks, which are used for aging of whisky, cognac and brandy, were the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Ireland.

Generally, the aging process has been highlighted as a critical step for producing high-quality spirits (Canas, 2017). From a legal point of view, the most prominent aged alcoholic beverages within the EU are protected from counterfeit and fraud by definitions and statements within the EEC 2019/787 (EU Commission, 2019). Thus, the basic requirement for the majority of famous aged spirits is strictly defined by law, with the main focus on the minimum aging time as well as the cask type. Furthermore, under protection by geographic origin (e.g. whisky, cognac, etc.), the regulation additionally defines the origin and quality of materials used for cask production. In many regions, the aging process also broadly refers to "traditional practices" experience and know-how that local professionals have developed over many years. This knowledge is transmitted traditionally by generations and represents a part of the specific cultural identity and cultural heritage of the regions. The geographic origin also represents an important factor of brand identity and market differentiation (Kostić-Stanković and Cvijović, 2017).

Different types of wood are used in cask production, and the selection mostly depends on the local tradition. Taking into account the differences among wood species, oaks are the most often utilized for cask production due to unquestionable superior mechanic, physical and chemical properties (Viriot et al., 1993; Smailagić et al., 2019). Out of 250 species of the genus Quercus, the following types of the oak tree, Quercus petraea L. (Q. sessiliflora) – the sessile Oak and Quercus pedunculata (Q. robur) – the pedunculate Oak in Europe, and Quercus alba in North America, are mostly used.

Cognac is a spirit with geographical indication, thus wooden casks are produced from particular types of oak: fine-grained Tronçais or coarser-grained Limousin, Quercus petraea (sessile oak) or Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) (Official Journal of the French Republic, 2018). Depending on the country of origin, different wooden casks are used for whisky aging. In the USA, the whisky must be aged in new, charred casks produced from white oak (Qian et al., 2019). In Scotland, reused casks used for whisky aging are of either American oak (Bourbon casks), European oak (usually Sherry casks) or rejuvenated oak (Halliday, 2004). Differently from cognac and whisky, brandy can be aged in cask produced from local oaks as well as alternative wood species (e.g. mulberry, black locust, white ash, plum, cherry, elm, etc.).

As global demand for wood casks is constantly increasing, woodcutting of all old trees (e.g. oaks are older than hundred years) have a negative effect on the environment and also threaten the future of the cooperage industry due to the nonavailability and high cost of oak timbers (Smailagić et al., 2019). Thus, the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) approved the use of wood fragments, including wood staves, chips or sticks, to hasten the spirits aging process (Coldea et al., 2020; Smailagić et al., 2021). Evermore, another novel trend is the utilization of alternative wood species from the local region, such as Eastern Europe.

Due to the significant time and cost differences inherent between aging in casks and with alternative methods, the final aged spirit drinks must have similar sensory attributes, mainly pleasurable and common for consumers.

Sensory analyses of aged spirits

Aged spirits are a complex alcohol-water mixture with great complexity and numerous ingredients, with the concentration that varies within an average of 0.001-1.0% (v/v). The determination of aged spirit quality is a complex problem. Besides its chemical composition, the sensory profile is generally the most important parameter for high-quality spirits, whereas aromatic compounds are the main constituent of their sensory profile. Even more, their contents, odor attributes, and thresholds are primary factors that affect the sensory quality of all alcoholic spirits, including aged spirits. Aromatic compounds can be classified into four groups: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary (Tešević et al., 2005; Pecić et al., 2011; Canas, 2017). The primary compounds originate from the raw material, concentrated in the inner layer of fruit skin, while grain and agricultural materials are not a rich source of aromatic compounds. In the fermentation process, the distillation and aging processes form, evoke or concentrate secondary, tertiary and quaternary aromatic compounds, respectively. All production steps have an influence on the sensory characteristics of the product, but, in standardized industrial production, the aging parameters (the maturation time and the kind of wood cask) are the main factor that defines uniqueness and its most valuable specifications.

After distillation, fresh distillates are often characterized by raw, pungent odor and taste, and consequently, they are not appropriate for consumption (Christoph and Bauer-Christoph, 2007; Pecić et al., 2012a). Thus, the fresh distillate must be aged in a wooden cask in order to create the characteristic sensory attributes (Pecić, 2015; Veljović et al., 2014). During the aging in wooden casks, the hundreds of volatile compounds derived from the wooden cask contribute to the aroma of the spirit during the aging process (Caldeira et al., 2006a). Taking into account the complexity of the aged spirit, generally, it can be pointed out that only a few compounds have the key influence on sensory perception (Pecić et al., 2016; Tsakiris et al., 2014). Main volatile aroma compounds originated from the toasted wood include cis-β-methyl-γ-octalactone and trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone ("whisky lactone"), vanillin, guajacol, eugenol, cresols, and other phenolic compounds. These compounds contribute to oak wood and vanilla-like flavor. A recent study has found that quercotriterpenosides, natural sweet compounds extracted from oak wood during aging soften the aroma of fresh distillates (Marchal et al., 2011; Marchal, et al., 2015). Besides the influence on overall sensory quality, the presence of particular chemical compounds, such as scopuletin, is considered as a proof of maturation in oak casks (Tsakiris et al., 2014). From a chemical point of view, the volatile compound profile of aged spirits (e.g. cognac and whisky) is almost the same qualitatively, but quantitatively, it is significantly different (Ferrari et al., 2004).

Besides the difference in the origin of wood material, Granja-Soares et al. (2020) have found that the innovative aging process undoubtedly has a greater influence on wine spirit quality than the type of wood. On the other hand, the sensory characteristics of developed aged spirits must be acceptable for sensory evaluators as well as consumers. The sensory evaluators mark the analyzed samples from a qualitative or/and quantitative point of view. For qualitative evaluation, the sensory experts describe carefully selected descriptors based on the sensory characteristics of particular spirits. The main sensory descriptors for aged spirits are woody/smoky, vanilla, toasty, caramel and spicy (Buglass et al., 2011).

Despite the extensive use of wood fragments, the regulation of the quality, labeling, and technical process has still not been considered on local or higher levels. Spirits with protected geographic designation have strict regulations, and alternative aging methods are forbidden (Schwarz et al., 2020). However, as previously mentioned, multiple factors have a strong influence on the increased utilization of alternative aging methods in the alcoholic beverage industry. Thus, recent scientific studies open the novel fields, having a strong connection between practical experience and the optimization of these processes in order to develop aged spirits of the same or ever-higher quality. In due course, it is possible that alternative aging methods may become accepted and, after a further time, become traditional, like cask aging. After all, consumers will give the final judgment of developed products, but cheaper products will represent an important market advantage and a more financially attractive business.

Attributes that influence the consumption of spirits

Multiple factors influence the multisensory perception of flavor and overall positive attitudes towards spirits. These factors are generally divided into two groups-intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic factors include internal traits of the spirit itself, like taste, aroma, color, mouthfeel and aftertaste, while extrinsic factors are related to packaging, brand name, label, price, origin, marketing activities or external environment (Lee et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2019a). Both groups of factors have their impact on beverage liking and consumption. The type of alcoholic spirits preferred for consumption may also depend on situational variables (Calvo-Porral and Levy-Mangin, 2019; Pierguidi et al., 2019; Pierguidi et al., 2020), as well as psychological factors (consumers' personality traits), prior experience and expectations (Lee et al., 2000) and individual differences in taste responsiveness (Pierguidi et al., 2019; Pierguidi et al., 2020). The influence of these factors is presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Groups of factors that influence consumers’ preferences for alcoholic spirits.

Besides consumer-related factors, preferences of spirits are also stimulated by specific attributes of a beverage. Attributes related to taste and smell are most often taken into consideration when examining consumer preferences towards beverages (Rajić et al., 2018). In other words, the consumption of certain beverages is driven by the sensations it provides (Fiches et al., 2016). Among different consumer expectations, satisfying sensory quality is considered the key success factor for the appreciation of a product (Fiches et al., 2016). For such reason, it is necessary to analyze make an analysis of consumers' perceptions of certain sensory attributes and preferences towards alcoholic spirits (Glenk et al., 2012). Changing certain sensory attributes may result in the changed perception, and thus, the overall evaluation of a product. For example, varying the scent or color of beverages can influence the perception of their aroma. There is empirical evidence of a link between sensory properties and emotions, namely, sensory attributes act as sensory drivers of emotions, consequently leading to product (dis)liking and positive or negative affective attitudes (Spinelli and Jaeger, 2019). By obtaining data through sensory perception during the consumption of an alcoholic spirit, consumers use pattern recognition processes, which means using sensory data to constitute a holistic mental image in specific regions of the brain. As a result, they produce a flavor recognition based not only on sensory data obtained at the time of consumption but also information from long-term, short-term and sensory memory systems (Lee, 2000). This will provide valuable input for the development of novel spirits which should contain desirable sensory attributes. The identification of sensory attributes that can deliver a notion of perceived taste and drive liking of a product is important for producers in terms of developing novel products that will have greater potential to stimulate consumer satisfaction (Farah et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2019b). It will enable greater market segmentation, optimization of manufacturing processes (Cravero et al., 2020), marketing strategies for new products, reformulation of existing ones, and formulation of quality control programs (Farah et al., 2017). For such reasons, research of consumers' preferences, and the identification of key sensory attributes based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, are prerequisites for a novel product launching (Rozin and Hormes, 2010). Identifying the most significant drivers of consumption enables a better predictability of consumer behavior in different markets, which, additionally, enlarges the potential for further market expansion (Veljović and Krstić, 2020).

Sensory marketing of spirits and its impact on consumers' perception and preferences

Consumers' individual experience during eating and drinking is based on various sensations, including taste, smell and touch (Rozin and Hormes, 2010; Redondo et al., 2014). As Bachmanov et al. (2003) noted, taste, olfaction, and chemosensory irritation are three independent sensory systems that enable the perception of flavor. Anetoh et al. (2020) noted that visual, gustatory, tactile, and olfactory attributes of beverages significantly influence the purchase intentions of consumers. "In addition to its composition, the overall perceived flavor of a food is mainly impacted by the way in which volatile aroma compounds are released in the mouth and transported to the olfactory receptors in the nose during food consumption" (Déléris et al., 2011). As a result, consumer preferences significantly depend on the sensory attributes of food and drinks and flavor perception (Le Berre et al., 2007; Holt et al., 2008).

Considering the importance of sensory attributes in driving consumption, the concept of sensory marketing has been developed and implemented. Sensory marketing has gained great importance as an effective marketing approach to influence consumers (Haase and Wiedmann, 2018). It is based on creating appeals that are able to stimulate visual, olfactory, haptic, auditory, and gustatory sensory systems in a better way than is the case with traditional marketing. The incorporation of such stimuli in marketing and sales programs is often done in the food industry (Vukmirović et al., 2018). Sensory marketing has proven to be especially influential for various experiential products such as beverages (Biswas et al., 2010; Kellershohn, 2018). Krishna (2012) defined sensory marketing as "marketing that engages the consumers' senses and affects their perception, judgment and behavior". Hultén (2015) has noted that the effectiveness of sensory marketing lies in its potential to affect consumption activities, so sensory marketing is based on using implicit marketing appeals that stimulate subconscious triggers that characterize consumers' perceptions of abstract notions of products, such as their quality and sophistication. By triggering customer senses, it represents an effective way to stimulate consumers to purchase/consume products that evoke certain sensations (Krishna, 2012). In order to develop proper sensory marketing activities and appeals, as well as to evaluate the obtained results, it is necessary first to assess consumers' perception of sensory cues of a certain alcoholic spirit. In the literature, there are various scales developed for this purpose. For example, Haase and Wiedmann (2018) developed a holistic scale for the measurement of the sensory perception of consumers. As stated by Cangussu et al. (2020), "sensory analysis objectively characterizes foods and beverages through the analysis of information perceived by the human senses". In the process of the sensory evaluation process, "blind-tastings" of consumers and experts are commonly used, which aim to enable participants to express their perception of taste and preferences based on intrinsic attributes and prior experience (Lawless and Heymann, 2010; Wang et al., 2019a). Perceived taste and liking are individually shaped, and they depend on the perceived intensity of taste and flavor (Samant et al., 2017). Generally, such marketing strategies are created to promote the intrinsic properties of the spirit more than emphasizing extrinsic attributes such as brands and labels (Maharjan, 2019). As sensory marketing has been developed, it goes beyond the traditional five sensory systems and their influence on product evaluations. For example, Biswas et al. (2019) extended the concept of sensory marketing by studying the effects of the vestibular system (responsible for balance and posture) on taste perceptions. They concluded that when eating/drinking in a standing (contrary to sitting) posture, consumers evaluate the taste of foods and beverages as less pleasant.

Sensory analysis may be based on employing different methods such as discrimination testing if the goal is to determine whether the product differs from other product(s), and to perform descriptive analysis in order to determine the way it differs regarding specific sensory attributes; or sorting or projective mapping if the goal is to determine the way certain product differs from competitors holistically without reconsidering differences in specific sensory attributes. The nine-point hedonic scale ranging from extreme liking to extreme disliking is used most commonly for this purpose. Consumer testing is preferably conducted as blind testing, so the focus is put on the effects of intrinsic attributes (color, odor, taste, mouthfeel, and aftertaste) on product liking and consumers' choice so that they can are observed isolated from the effects that extrinsic attributes would have (if the price, the label, the origin would be indicated) (Heymann and Ebeler, 2016).

Sensory attributes of alcoholic spirits and their impact on consumers’ preferences

There is empirical evidence that sensory characteristics drive consumer preferences of spirits and can be used for differentiation in relation to the competition. Raz et al. (2008) examined the influence of four groups of factors: color intensity, flavoring, label type and pack size, and found out that color intensity and flavoring, which represent intrinsic factors, are the main drivers of consumer preferences, while other two, which represent extrinsic factors, have a lesser effect on consumers' preferences. In their research, Monteiro et al. (2017) have found out that consumer evaluations of beverages are driven by aroma strength, color intensity and balance between sweetness and acidity. For alcoholic beverages, the aroma is found to significantly contribute to chemosensory perception and appreciation, so the quality of these beverages is to a large extent linked to aromatic richness and complexity (Le Berre et al., 2007; Holt et al., 2008; Fiches et al., 2014). Flavor plays an important role in accepting or rejecting alcoholic spirits (Bachmanov et al., 2003). Because of that, so-called flavor wheels have become popular means to illustrate the flavors that are likely to be perceived when drinking spirits like whisky or brandy, which are used for the purpose of training sensory assessors or communicating with marketing and sales departments and consumers (Lee et al., 2001; Piggott and Macleod, 2010). Spence and Wan (2015) found out that sensory qualities of the spirit can be enhanced by other factors, one of which is the shape of the glass. A glass that consumers find to be proper can enhance their perception of the sensory and hedonistic qualities of the spirit.

Cravero et al. (2020) determined three groups of customers in relation to their preferences of beverages based on investigating the individual responsiveness to various oral sensations that alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages provoke. These groups are: "spirit-lovers" – the smallest group, mainly consisting of male consumers, aged 30-45, who enjoy consuming alcoholic beverages of any kind, especially spirits, more than other segments; "beer/wine lovers" – the group that consists of older consumers of both genders; "mild-drink lovers" – the group that includes mainly women, aged 18-29, who demonstrate a lower consumption of alcohol but like alcoholic drinks with an intensely sweet taste and/or mixers that moderate the perception of ethanol.

Ethanol is considered to be the defining component of all alcoholic beverages, which, due to its physiochemical properties, has a tremendous influence on flavor perception and chemosensory evaluation of beverages, including distilled spirits. There is plenty of empirical evidence that changes in ethanol concentration can have an impact on alcoholic beverage flavor perception in terms of taste, aroma and mouthfeel (Le Berre et al., 2007; Boothroyd et al., 2012; King et al., 2013; King and Heymann, 2014;Ickes and Cadwallader, 2017; Ramsey et al., 2018). It has been shown that the dilution of whiskies to 23% ABV for "nosing" in the presence of long-chain ethyl esters is likely to change aroma perception (Boothroyd et al., 2012). When examining the role of ethanol in the aroma of whisky Poisson and Schieberle (2008), emphasized the "masking effect" of ethanol, especially regarding fruity aroma, since an aroma model with a lower level of ethanol demonstrated a more expressed fruitier note as the complete model.

Distilled spirits, such as whiskies and brandies, are valued by consumers for the richness of their aroma and changes during product consumption (Glenk et al., 2012). Because of that, the aroma and flavor of whisky, cognac and other distilled spirits are critical factors of consumer acceptance, and therefore, must be regularly evaluated and controlled by conducting sensory analysis (Piggott and Macleod, 2010). As Poisson and Schieberle (2008) noted, whisky's characteristic is a unique aroma based on a combination of smoky, malty odors with a characteristic sweet, vanilla-based flavor note. Lee et al. (2000) defined a set of 16 compounds of whisky flavor standard (namely: acetic acid (sour), diacetyl (buttery), dimethyl trisulphide (sulphury), ethyl hexanoate (fruity-appley), ethyl laurate (soapy), furfural (grainy), geraniol (floral), guaiacol (smoky), hexanal (grassy), iso-amyl acetate (fruity-banana), iso-valeric acid (sweaty), maltol (sweet), phenyl ethanol (floral), vanillin (vanilla), 4-vinyl guaiacol (spicy) and whisky lactone (coconut)) that were recognized by 90% of assessors in their analysis. However, some authors pointed out the important influence of extrinsic attributes on the evaluation of the overall quality of the whisky, which means that the perception of whisky quality, as a result of the synergistic and holistic perceptual process, is "more than the sum of its component perceptions" (Wang et al., 2019a). Piggott et al. (1990) emphasized that differences in consumer perceptions of flavors of different types of whisky may be a result of perceptions of non-sensory attributes. According to their research findings, malt whisky was made clearly distinctive in relation to standard and deluxe blended whiskies and clustered together with brandy and liqueurs by female consumers. Authors noted that, in the case of female consumers, who generally consume whisky significantly less than male consumers and possess little knowledge of the product, the appreciation of the finer whiskies is possibly developed primarily based on their image and not on intrinsic attributes.

Maharjan (2019) noted that brandy is a wide spirit category that includes a large number of different types of spirits, so it is necessary to explore what drives consumers' preferences and choices of certain types of brandy. The study of Fiches et al. (2014) emphasized the impact of aroma perception on the global sensory image of brandies. They concluded that differences in perception of different French grape brandies appeared to be based on differences in their volatile composition, which depends on aroma formation and steps in manufacturing processes, like fermentation and distillation. Fiches et al. (2016) studied the origin of temporal perception during the consumption of five brandies with different aging and qualities by applying sensory analysis. The results of the temporal sensory analysis demonstrated common perception sequences for all brandies related to taste and trigeminal sensations, while different aromatic sequences were emphasized between products, based mainly on their aging. Similar release patterns were noted in all cases, even though higher intensities were determined for esters in aged brandies, as they were present at higher levels. Additionally, the overall perception of brandies could be influenced by aroma compounds from wood which interacts with other perceptions. The impact of certain compounds of brandy flavor on the perceived quality was also confirmed in the literature. The compounds like toasted, woody, vanilla, body, flavor persistence and spicy were found to be significantly correlated with brandy quality, while the tails, green and caoutchouc (rubber) characters appeared to be negatively correlated with brandy quality. Also, the complexity of brandy flavor appeared to have a highly significant influence on quality. There is a certain flavor evolution that happens in brandy over the period of five years of maturation, so the intensity of aroma notes such as vanilla, woody, caramel, toasted, and smoke increases over time and may reach equilibrium after four years of maturation (Caldeira et al., 2006b). Louw and Lambrechts (2012) pointed to the empirical evidence that the majority of sensory modifications of brandies occur during the first three years of maturation in wood. Caldeira et al. (2006b) have concluded that the flavor complexity of brandies consistently increases for the period of at least the first five years of maturation in new oak barrels. On the other hand, alcoholic and glue-like attributes show a decrease over time, while attributes like dried fruits, smooth, tails and caoutchouc/rubber may not be uninfluenced by the maturation process. The findings of Caldeira et al. (2010), who applied sensory analysis to evaluate the effects of chestnut and oak barrels on the sensory attributes of Portuguese brandies, indicate that smoky aroma stands out as an important attribute that contributes to the perception of brandy quality.

The research conducted by Song et al. (2018) had the goal to provide valuable information for the creation of marketing communication strategies for cognac brands tailored for American and Chinese consumers, based on different perceptions of the importance of different attributes. They found out that, in the case of American consumers, marketing appeals should be focused on the sensation and hedonistic character of cognac, including its taste, luxury feature and informal social settings where it is most often consumed. On the other hand, Chinese customers value most the social utilitarian functions of cognac and appreciate cognac brand more if it is associated with European culture, elitist lifestyle and business occasions for consumption.

Conclusion

The aging process has been highlighted as a key step for producing highquality spirit drinks. Although other methods for aging are frequently used in practice, the regulation of the quality, labeling, and technical process is still not considered on local or higher levels. Spirits with protected geographical indications have strict regulations, and alternative aging methods are forbidden. Multiple factors have a strong influence on the increased utilization of alternative aging methods in the alcohol beverage industry. Recently, scientific studies have opened novel fields, making a strong connection between practical experience and optimization of these processes in order to develop aged spirits of the same or even higher quality.

The consumption of alcoholic beverages derives from ancient times, and today, it represents a common element of many social occasions and the culture of eating. Consumers react to the organoleptic properties of alcoholic beverages with their senses, so the perception of sensory information leads to the overall evaluation of the quality of the spirit. Identifying the key sensory attributes that drive the liking of a spirit is valuable in the process of the development of novel products, as well as for creating effective marketing appeals that have the potential to attract customers and stimulate purchasing and consumption. The identification of sensory attributes of distilled spirits, like whiskies, brandies and cognac, famous for the richness of their aroma and flavor, represents a critical factor for understanding consumer preferences, and therefore, it must be regularly performed by applying sensory analysis.

Finally, consumers will give the final judgment of developed aged spirits, but cheaper products will represent an important market advantage and a more financially attractive business. In due course, it is possible that alternative aging methods may become accepted and, after a further time, become traditional, like cask aging.

Aknowledgments

This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia [Contact No. 451-03-68/2020-14/200051].

References

Anetoh, J.C., Nnabuko, J.O., Okolo, V.O., & Anetoh, V.C. (2020). Sensory Attributes of Malt Drinks and Consumer Purchase Decisions. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 26(5), 317-343. [Crossref]
Awad, P., Athès, V., Decloux, M.E., Ferrari, G., Snakkers, G., Raguenaud, P., & Giampaoli, P. (2017). Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit. J Agric Food Chem, 65(35), 7736-7748. [Crossref]
Babor, T.F. (2009). Alcohol research and the alcoholic beverage industry: Issues, concerns and conflicts of interest. Addiction, 104(1), 34-47. [Crossref]
Bachmanov, A.A., Kiefer, S.W., Molina, J.C., Tordoff, M.G., Duffy, V.B., Bartoshuk, L.M., & Mennella, J.A. (2003). Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 27(2), 220-231. [Crossref]
Biswas, D., Grewal, D., & Roggeveen, A. (2010). How the order of sampled experiential products affects choice? J Mark Res, 47(3), 508-519. [Crossref]
Biswas, D., Szocs, C., & Abell, A. (2019). Extending the Boundaries of Sensory Marketing and Examining the Sixth Sensory System: Effects of Vestibular Sensations for Sitting versus Standing Postures on Food Taste Perception. J Consum Res, 46(4), 708-724. [Crossref]
Boothroyd, E.L., Linforth, R.S.T., & Cook, D.J. (2012). Effects of Ethanol and Long-Chain Ethyl Ester Concentrations on Volatile Partitioning in a Whisky Model System. J Agric Food Chem, 60(40), 9959-9966. [Crossref]
Buglass, A.J., McKay, M., & Lee, C.G. (2011). Distillated spirits. In: A.J. Buglass, (Ed.). Handbook of alcoholic beverages, technical, analytical and nutritional aspects. (pp. 457-626). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Caldeira, I., Clímaco, M.C., de Sousa, B.R., & Belchior, A.P. (2006). Volatile composition of oak and chestnut woods used in brandy ageing: Modification induced by heat treatment. J Food Eng, 76, 202-211. [Crossref]
Caldeira, I., Mateus, A.M., & Belchior, A.P. (2006). Flavour and odour profile modifications during the first five years of Lourinhã brandy maturation on different wooden barrels. Anal Chim Acta, 563, 264-273. [Crossref]
Caldeira, I., Anjos, O., Portal, V., Belchior, A.P., & Canas, S. (2010). Sensory and chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood fragments in comparison to wooden barrels. Anal Chim Acta, 660, 43-52. [Crossref]
Calvo-Porral, C., & Levy-Mangin, J.P. (2019). Situational factors in alcoholic beverage consumption: Examining the influence of the place of consumption. Br Food J, 121(9), 2086-2101.
Canas, S. (2017). Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics: A Review. Beverages, 3, 55. [Crossref]
Cangussu, L.B., Rodrigues, C.G., Ribeiro, M.C., Dutra, V.L.M., Amaral, E.F.G., & Fante, C.A. (2020). Projective mapping: Potential tool for sensory evaluation of coffees for industrial application. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 41(5), 1557-565. [Crossref]
Christoph, N., & Bauer-Christoph, C. (2007). Flavour of Spirit Drinks: Raw Materials, Fermentation, Distillation, and Ageing. In: R.G. Berger, (Ed.). Flavours and fragrances: Chemistry, bioprocessing and sustainability. (pp. 219-239). Berlin: Springer. [Crossref]
Coldea, T.E., Socaciu, C., Mudura, E., Socaci, S.A., Ranga, F., Pop, C.R., Vriesekoop, F., & Pasqualone, A. (2020). Volatile and phenolic profiles of traditional Romanian apple brandy after rapid ageing with different wood chips. Food Chem, 320, 126643. [Crossref]
Conner, J., Reid, K., & Jack, F. (2003). Maturation and blending. In: I. Russell, G. Stewart, & C. Bamforth, (Ed.). Whisky, technology, production and marketing. (pp. 209-240). Boston: Academic Press. [Crossref]
Cravero, M.C., Laureati, M., Spinelli, S., Bonello, F., Monteleone, E., Proserpio, C., Lottero, M.R., Pagliarini, E., & Dinnella, C. (2020). Profiling Individual Differences in Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Consumption: New Insights from a Large-Scale Study. Foods, 9(8), 1131. [Crossref]
Dasgupta, A., & Klein, K. (2014). Alcoholic beverages: Antioxidant and other health benefits of moderate consumption. In: A. Dasgupta, & K. Klein, (Ed.). Antioxidants in food, vitamins and supplements. (pp. 259-276). San Diego: Elsevier.
Déléris, I., Saint-Eve, A., Guo, Y., Lieben, P., Cypriani, M.L., Jacquet, N., Brunerie, P., & Souchon, I. (2011). Impact of swallowing on the dynamics of aroma release and perception during the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Chem Senses, 36, 701-713.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR). Title 27. Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms Chapter I. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Department of the Treasury Subchapter A. Alcohol Part 5. Labeling and advertising of distilled spirits Subpart C. Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits Section 5.22. The standards of identity..
EU Commission. (2019). Regulation (EU) 2019/787 of The European Parliament and of The Council of 17 April 2019 on the definition, description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks, the use of the names of spirit drinks in the presentation and labelling of other foodstuffs, the protection of geographical indications for spirit drinks, the use of ethyl alcohol and distillates of agricultural origin in alcoholic beverages, and repealing Regulation (EC) No 110/2008. Official Journal of the European Union, L 130/1.
Farah, J.S., Araujo, C.B., & Melo, L. (2017). Analysis of yoghurts', whey-based beverages' and fermented milks' labels and differences on their sensory profiles and acceptance. Int Dairy J, 68, 17-22. [Crossref]
Ferrari, G., Lablanquie, O., Cantagrel, R., Ledauphin, J., Payot, T., Fournier, N., & Guichard, E. (2004). Determination of Key Odorant Compounds in Freshly Distilled Cognac Using GC-O, GC-MS, and Sensory Evaluation. J Agric Food Chem, 52, 5670-5676. [Crossref]
Fiches, G., Deleris, I., Saint-Eve, A., Passot, S., Brunerie, P., & Souchon, I. (2014). Influence of the Nonvolatile Fraction on the Sensory Perception of 40% (v/v) Ethanol-Containing French Grape Brandies. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29(1), 56-63. [Crossref]
Fiches, G., Saint-Eve, A., Jourdren, S., Déléris, I., Brunerie, P., & Souchon, I. (2016). Temporality of perception during the consumption of French grape brandies with different aging times in relation with aroma compound release. Flavour Fragr J, 31(1), 31-40. [Crossref]
Glenk, K., Hall, C., Liebe, U., & Meyerhoff, J. (2012). Preferences of Scotch malt whisky consumers for changes in pesticide use and origin of barley. Food Policy, 37(6), 719-731. [Crossref]
Granja-Soares, J., Roque, R., Cabrita, M.J., Anjos, O., Belchior, A.P., Caldeira, I., & Canas, S. (2020). Effect of innovative technology using staves and micro-oxygenation on the odorant and sensory profile of aged wine spirit. Food Chem, 333, 127450. [Crossref]
Haase, J., & Wiedmann, K.P. (2018). The sensory perception item set (SPI): An exploratory effort to develop a holistic scale for sensory marketing. Psychol Mark, 35(10), 727-739. [Crossref]
Halliday, D.J. (2004). Tradition and innovation in the Scotch whisky industry. In: J.H. Bryce, & G.G. Stewart, (Ed.). Distilled spirits: Tradition and innovation. (pp. 1-12). Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Heymann, H., & Ebeler, S.E. (2016). Sensory and Instrumental Evaluation of Alcoholic Beverages. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.
Holt, H.E., Francis, I.L., Field, J., Herderich, M.J., & Iland, P.G. (2008). Relationships between wine phenolic composition and wine sensory properties for Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.). Aust J Grape Wine Res, 14(3), 162-176. [Crossref]
Hultén, B. (2015). Sensory marketing: Theoretical and empirical grounds. London: Routledge.
Ickes, C.M., & Cadwallader, K.R. (2017). Effects of Ethanol on Flavor Perception in Alcoholic Beverages. Chemosens Percept, 10, 119-134. [Crossref]
Kellershohn, J. (2018). Alcoholic Beverages: Technology and Next-Generation Marketing. In: S. Panda, & P. Shetty, (Ed.). Innovations in Technologies for Fermented Food and Beverage Industries. (pp. 105-120). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. [Crossref]
King, E.S., Dunn, R.L., & Heymann, H. (2013). The influence of alcohol on the sensory perception of red wines. Food Qual Prefer, 28(1), 235-243. [Crossref]
King, E.S., & Heymann, H. (2014). The Effect of Reduced Alcohol on the Sensory Profiles and Consumer Preferences of White Wine. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29(1), 33-42. [Crossref]
Kostić-Stanković, M., & Cvijović, J. (2017). The influence of the country of brand origin on purchasing decisions: The attitudes of Serbian consumers. In: ECIN 2017: International Economics and Management Conference, Belgrade. (pp. 177-184).
Krishna, A. (2012). An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior. J Consum Psychol, 22(3), 332-351. [Crossref]
Lawless, H.T., & Heymann, H. (2010). Sensory evaluation of food: Principles and practices. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Le Berre, E., Atanasova, B., Langlois, D., Etievant, P., & Thomas-Danguin, T. (2007). Impact of ethanol on the perception of wine odorant mixtures. Food Qual Prefer, 18, 901-908.
Le Floch, A., Jourdes, M., & Teissedre, P.L. (2015). Polysaccharides and lignin from oak wood used in cooperage: Composition, interest, assays: A review. Carbohydr Res, 417(19), 94-102.
Lee, K.Y.M., Paterson, A., Piggott, J.R., & Richardson, G.D. (2000). Perception of Whisky Flavour Reference Compounds by Scottish Distillers. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 106(4), 203-208. [Crossref]
Lee, K.Y.M., Paterson, A., & Piggott, J.R. (2001). Origins of Flavour in Whiskies and a Revised Flavour Wheel: A Review. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 107(5), 287-313. [Crossref]
Louw, L., & Lambrechts, M.G. (2012). Grape-based brandies: Production, sensory properties and sensory evaluation. In: J. Piggot, (Ed.). Alcoholic beverages: Sensory evaluation and consumer research. (pp. 292-294). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing. [Crossref]
Lurton, L., Ferrari, G., & Snakkers, G. (2012). Cognac: Production and aromatic characteristics. In: P. J., (Ed.). Alcoholic beverages: Sensory evaluation and consumer research. (pp. 242-266). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing. [Crossref]
Maharjan, R. (2019). A Conceptual Discourse on Consumer's Preference of Brandy. Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 1(2), 296-307. [Crossref]
Marchal, A., Waffo-Téguo, P., Génin, E., Mérillon, J.M., & Dubourdieu, D. (2011). Identification of New Natural Sweet Compounds in Wine Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography-Gustatometry and Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry. Anal Chem, 853(24), 9629-9637. [Crossref]
Marchal, A., Génin, E., Waffo-Téguo, P., Bibès, A., da Costa, G., Mérillon, J.M., & Dubourdieu, D. (2015). Development of an analytical methodology using Fourier transform mass spectrometry to discover new structural analogs of wine natural sweeteners. Anal Chim Acta, 853, 425-434. [Crossref]
Monteiro, M.J.P., Costa, I.A.A., Fliedel, G., Cissé, M., Bechoff, A., Pallet, D., Tomlins, K., & Pintado, M.E.M. (2017). Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes. Food Chem, 225, 202-212. [Crossref]
Mosedale, J.R., & Puech, J.L. (1998). Wood maturation of distilled beverages. Trends Food Sci Technol, 9, 95-101. [Crossref]
Mosedale, J.R., & Puech, J.L. (2003). Barrels, Wines, Spirits, and Other Beverages. In: B. Caballero, (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. (pp. 393-403). London: Academic Press. [Crossref]
Pecić, S., Nikićević, N., Veljović, M., Jadranin, M., Tešević, V., Belović, M., & Nikšić, M. (2016). The influence of extraction parameters on physicochemical properties of special grain brandies with Ganoderma lucidum. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly / CICEQ, 22(2), 181-189.
Pecić, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Tešević, V., Nikićević, N., & Nikšić, M. (2011). The sensory properties of special brandy with G. lucidum. In: International Congress of food technologists and biotechnologists (7th), Opatija, Croatia, Proceeding. (pp. 83-86).
Pecić, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Leskošek-Čukalović, I., Jadranin, M., Tešević, V., Nikšić, M., & Nikićević, N. (2012). Effect of maturation conditions on sensory and antioxidant properties of old Serbian plum brandies. Eur Food Res Technol, 235(3), 479-487. [Crossref]
Pecić, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Leskošek-Čukalović, I., Nikšić, M., Vukosavljević, P., & Nikićević, N. (2012). Antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of special herb brandy. In: Central European Congress on Food (6th), 23-26. May, Novi Sad, Serbia, Proceedings. (pp. 1371-1375).
Pecić, S. (2015). Uticaj plodosnog tela gljive Ganoderma lucidum na hemiski sastav i senzorna svojstva specijalnih rakija. Univerzitet u Beogradu-Poljoprivredni fakultet.
Pierguidi, L., Spinelli, S., Dinnella, C., Prescott, J., & Monteleone, E. (2020). Sensory acceptability and personality traits both determine which contexts are preferred for consumption of alcoholic cocktails. Food Qual Prefer, 85. [Crossref]
Pierguidi, L., Spinelli, S., Dinnella, C., Prescott, J., & Monteleone, E. (2019). Individual differences in perceived complexity are associated with different affective responses to alcoholic cocktails. Food Qual Prefer, 47-59. [Crossref]
Piggott, J.R., Sheen, M.R., & Apostolidou, S.G. (1990). Consumers' perceptions of whiskies and other alcoholic beverages. Food Qual Prefer, 2, 177-185. [Crossref]
Piggott, J.R., & Macleod , J.S. (2010). Sensory quality control of distilled beverages. In: D. Kilcast, (Ed.). Sensory analysis for food and beverage quality control: A Practical guide. (pp. 262-275). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited. [Crossref]
Podstawski, R., Wesołowska, E., Choszcz, D., Markowski, P., & Klimczak, J. (2019). Drinking behaviours and alcohol preferences of female and male students at a Polish university in 2000-2016. Drugs (Abingdon Engl), 26(3), 280-286.
Poisson, L., & Schieberle, P. (2008). Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an American bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies. J Agric Food Chem, 56, 5820-5826.
Power, A.C., Néill, C.N., Geoghegan, S., Currivan, S., Deasy, M., & Cozzolino, D. (2020). A brief history of whisky adulteration and the role of spectroscopy combined with chemometrics in the detection of modern whisky fraud. Beverages, 6, 49.
Official Journal of the French Republic. (2018). Product specification for the Cognac or Eau-de-vie de Cognac or Eau-de-vie des Charentes controlled appellation of origin, officially recognised by French decree No. 2015-10 dated 7 January 2015, amended by the Order of 8 November 2018.
Qian, M.C., Hughes, P., & Cadwallader, K. (2019). Overview of Distilled Spirits. In: B. Guthrie, J.D. Beauchampm, A. Buettner, S. Toth, & M.C. Qian, (Ed.) Sex, smoke, and spirits: The role of chemistry (ACS Symposium Series). Vol. 1321. (pp. 125-144). Washington: American Chemical Society. [Crossref]
Rajić, T., Cvijović, J., & Nikolić, I. (2018). Modelling the determinants of customer loyalty in the context of consumer goods: Evidence from an emerging economy. In: Mirovye naučnotehnologičeskie tendencii social'no-èkonomičeskogo razvitiâ APK i sel'skih territorij: Meždunarodnaâ naučno-praktičeskaâ konferenciâ, posvâŝennaâ 75letiû okončaniâ Stalingradskoj bitvy. (pp. 169-176). Volgograd.
Ramsey, I., Ross, C., Ford, R., Fisk, I., Yang, Q., Gomez-Lopez, J., & Hort, J. (2018). Using a combined temporal approach to evaluate the influence of ethanol concentration on liking and sensory attributes of lager beer. Food Qual Prefer, 68, 292-303. [Crossref]
Raz, C., Piper, D., Haller, R., Nicod, H., Dusart, N., & Giboreau, A. (2008). From sensory marketing to sensory design: How to drive formulation using consumers' input? Food Qual Prefer, 19(8), 719-726. [Crossref]
Redondo, N., Gómez-Martínez, S., & Marcos, A. (2014). Sensory attributes of soft drinks and their influence on consumers' preferences. Food Funct, 5, 1686-1694. [Crossref]
Roullier-Gall, C., Signoret, J., Coelho, C., Hemmler, D., Kajdana, M., Lucioc, M., Schäferd, B., Gougeona, R.D., & Schmitt-Kopplin, P. (2020). Influence of regionality and maturation time on the chemical fingerprint of whisky. Food Chem, 323, 126748. [Crossref]
Rozin, P., & Hormes, J.M. (2010). Psychology and Sensory Marketing, With a Focus on Food. In: A. Krishna, (Ed.). Sensory marketing: Research on the sensuality of products. (pp. 303-321). Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Group-Routledge. [Crossref]
Samant, S.S., Chapko, M., & Seo, H.S. (2017). Predicting consumer liking and preference based on emotional responses and sensory perception: A study with basic taste solutions. Food Res Int, 100(1), 325-334. [Crossref]
Schwarz, M., Rodríguez-Dodero, M.C., Jurado, M.S., Puertas, B., Barroso, C.G., & Guillén, D.A. (2020). Analytical Characterization and Sensory Analysis of Distillates of Different Varieties of Grapes Aged by an Accelerated Method. Foods, 9, 277. [Crossref]
Śliwińska, M., Wiśniewska, P., Dymerski, T., Wardencki, W., & Namieśnik, J. (2015). The flavour of fruit spirits and fruit liqueurs: A review. Flavour Fragr J, 30, 197-207. [Crossref]
Smailagić, A., Veljović, S., Gašić, U., Dabić-Zagorac, D., Stanković, M., Radotić, K., & Natić, M. (2019). Phenolic profile, chromatic parameters and fluorescence of different woods used in Balkan cooperage. Ind Crops Prod, 132, 156-167.
Smailagić, A., Stanković, D.M., Vranješ-Đurić, S., Veljović, S., Dabić-Zagorac, D., Manojlović, D., & Natić, M. (2021). Influence of extraction time, solvent and wood specie on experimentally aged spirits: A simple tool to differentiate wood species used in cooperage. Food Chem, 346, 128896.
Song, L., Wei, Y., & Bergiel, B.J. (2018). Cognac consumption: A comparative study on American and Chinese consumers. Wine Economics and Policy, 7(1), 24-34.
Spence, S., & Wan, X. (2015). Beverage perception and consumption: The influence of the container on the perception of the contents. Food Qual Prefer, 39, 131-140.
Spinelli, S., & Jaeger, S.R. (2019). What do we know about the sensory drivers of emotions in foods and beverages? Curr Opin Food Sci, 27, 82-89.
Statista. (2020). Alcoholic beverages. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/markets/415/topic/464/ alcoholic-beverages/ on December 10, 2020.
Tešević, V., Nikićević, N., Jovanović, A., Đoković, D., Vujisić, L., Vučković, I., & Bonić, M. (2005). Volatile components from old plum brandies. Food Technol Biotechnol, 43, 367-372.
TradeMap. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.trademap.org/ AdvancedProductSearch on December 15, 2020.
Tsakiris, A., Kallithraka, S., & Kourkoutas, Y. (2014). Grape brandy production, composition and sensory evaluation. J Sci Food Agric, 94(3), 404-414. [Crossref]
Veljović, S., Nikićević, N., & Nikšić, M. (2019). Medicinal Fungus Ganoderma lucidum as Raw Material for Alcohol Beverage Production. In: A.H. Grumezescu, & A.M. Holban, (Ed.). Alcoholic Beverages: The Science of Beverages. (pp. 161-197). Cambridge, MA, United States: Woodhead Publishing. [Crossref]
Veljović, S., & Krstić, J. (2020). Elaborating on the potential for mushroom-based product market expansion: Consumers' attitudes and purchasing intentions. In: J. Singh, V. Meshram, & M. Gupta, (Ed.). Bioactive natural products in drug discovery. (pp. 643-663). Singapore: Springer.
Veljović, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Ivković, B., Leskošek-Čukalović, I., Nikšić, M., & Nikićević, N. (2014). Uticaj plodonosnog tela gljive Ganoderma lucidum na antioksidativni kapacitet lozovih rakija. Hrana i ishrana, 55(2), 43-47.
Veljović, S., Tomić, N., Belović, M., Nikićević, N., Vukosavljević, P., Nikšić, M., & Tešević, V. (2019). Volatile composition, colour, and sensory quality of spirit-based beverages enriched with medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum and herbal extract. Food Technol Biotechnol, 57(3), 408-417.
Veljović, S. (2016). Mogućnost korišćenja gljiva i lekovitog bilja u proizvodnji jakih alkoholnih pića. Beograd: Ekonomski institut.
Viriot, C., Scalbert, A., Lapierre, C., & Moutounets, M. (1993). Ellagitannins and lignins in aging of spirits in oak barrels? J Agric Food Chem, 41, 1872-1879. [Crossref]
Vukmirović, V., Kostić-Stanković, M., & Vasilić, S. (2018). Sales improvement strategies in Serbian food industry. In: Međunarodna konferencija Inovacije i preduzetništvo - pokretači razvoja i zapošljavanja. (pp. 54-68). Banja Luka: Ekonomski fakultet.
Wang, Q.J., Mielby, L.A., Junge, J.Y., Bertelsen, A.S., Kidmose, U., Spence, C., & Byrne, D.V. (2019). The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Sensory Factors in Sweetness Perception of Food and Beverages: A Review. Foods, 8(6), 211. [Crossref]
Wang, Q.J., Mielby, L.A., Thybo, A.K., Bertelsen, A.S., Kidmose, U., Spence, C., & Byrne, D.V. (2019). Sweeter together: Assessing the combined influence of product-related and contextual factors on perceived sweetness of fruit beverages. Journal of Sensory Study, 34(3), e12492.
Winstel, D., & Marchal, A. (2019). Lignans in Spirits: Chemical Diversity, Quantification, and Sensory Impact of (±) - Lyoniresinol. Molecules, 24, 117. [Crossref]
Wiśniewska, P., Śliwińska, M., Dymerski, T., Wardencki, W., & Namieśnik, J. (2016). The analysis of raw spirits: A review of methodology. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 122, 5-10. [Crossref]
Zasimova, L., & Kolosnitsyna, M. (2020). Exploring the relationship between drinking preferences and recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russian regions in 2010-2016. Int J Drug Policy, 82, 102810. [Crossref]
Zhang, B., Cai, J., Duan, C.Q., Reeves, M.J., & He, F. (2015). A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 6978-7014. [Crossref]
Reference
*** Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Department of the Treasury: Alcohol: Labeling and advertising of distilled spirits: Standards of Identity for D. Chapter I, Subchapter A, Part 5, Subpart C, Section 5.22
*** (2018) Product specification for the Cognac or Eau-de-vie de Cognac or Eau-de-vie des Charentes controlled appellation of origin. Official Journal of the French Republic, officially recognised by French decree No. 2015-10 dated 7 January 2015, amended by the Order of 8 November 2018
Anetoh, J.C., Nnabuko, J.O., Okolo, V.O., Anetoh, V.C. (2020) Sensory Attributes of Malt Drinks and Consumer Purchase Decisions. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 26(5): 317-343
Awad, P., Athès, V., Decloux, M.E., Ferrari, G., Snakkers, G., Raguenaud, P., Giampaoli, P. (2017) Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(35): 7736-7748
Babor, T.F. (2009) Alcohol research and the alcoholic beverage industry: Issues, concerns and conflicts of interest. Addiction, 104(1): 34-47
Bachmanov, A.A., Kiefer, S.W., Molina, J.C., Tordoff, M.G., Duffy, V.B., Bartoshuk, L.M., Mennella, J.A. (2003) Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 27(2): 220-231
Biswas, D., Grewal, D., Roggeveen, A. (2010) How the order of sampled experiential products affects choice?. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(3): 508-519
Biswas, D., Szocs, C., Abell, A. (2019) Extending the Boundaries of Sensory Marketing and Examining the Sixth Sensory System: Effects of Vestibular Sensations for Sitting versus Standing Postures on Food Taste Perception. Journal of Consumer Research, 46(4): 708-724
Boothroyd, E.L., Linforth, R.S.T., Cook, D.J. (2012) Effects of Ethanol and Long-Chain Ethyl Ester Concentrations on Volatile Partitioning in a Whisky Model System. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(40): 9959-9966
Buglass, A.J., McKay, M., Lee, C.G. (2011) Distillated spirits. u: Buglass A.J. [ur.] Handbook of alcoholic beverages, technical, analytical and nutritional aspects, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 457-626
Caldeira, I., Mateus, A.M., Belchior, A.P. (2006) Flavour and odour profile modifications during the first five years of Lourinhã brandy maturation on different wooden barrels. Analytica Chimica Acta, 563(1-2): 264-273
Caldeira, I., Anjos, O., Portal, V., Belchior, A.P., Canas, S. (2010) Sensory and chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood fragments in comparison to wooden barrels. Analytica Chimica Acta, 660(1-2): 43-52
Caldeira, I., Clímaco, M.C., de Sousa, B.R., Belchior, A.P. (2006) Volatile composition of oak and chestnut woods used in brandy ageing: Modification induced by heat treatment. Journal of Food Engineering, 76(2): 202-211
Calvo-Porral, C., Levy-Mangin, J.P. (2019) Situational factors in alcoholic beverage consumption: Examining the influence of the place of consumption. British Food Journal, 121(9): 2086-2101
Canas, S. (2017) Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics: A Review. Beverages, 3(4): 55-55
Cangussu, L.B., Rodrigues, C.G., Ribeiro, M.C., Dutra, V.L.M., Amaral, E.F.G., Fante, C.A. (2020) Projective mapping: Potential tool for sensory evaluation of coffees for industrial application. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 41(5): 1557-1566
Christoph, N., Bauer-Christoph, C. (2007) Flavour of Spirit Drinks: Raw Materials, Fermentation, Distillation, and Ageing. u: Berger R.G. [ur.] Flavours and fragrances: Chemistry, bioprocessing and sustainability, Berlin: Springer, 219-239
Coldea, T.E., Socaciu, C., Mudura, E., Socaci, S.A., Ranga, F., Pop, C.R., Vriesekoop, F., Pasqualone, A. (2020) Volatile and phenolic profiles of traditional Romanian apple brandy after rapid ageing with different wood chips. Food Chemistry, 320: 126643
Conner, J., Reid, K., Jack, F. (2003) Maturation and blending. u: Russell I., Stewart G., Bamforth C. [ur.] Whisky, technology, production and marketing, Boston: Academic Press, 209-240
Cravero, M.C., Laureati, M., Spinelli, S., Bonello, F., Monteleone, E., Proserpio, C., Lottero, M.R., Pagliarini, E., Dinnella, C. (2020) Profiling Individual Differences in Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Consumption: New Insights from a Large-Scale Study. Foods, 9(8): 1131
Dasgupta, A., Klein, K. (2014) Alcoholic beverages: Antioxidant and other health benefits of moderate consumption. u: Dasgupta A., Klein K. [ur.] Antioxidants in food, vitamins and supplements, San Diego: Elsevier, 259-276
Déléris, I., Saint-Eve, A., Guo, Y., Lieben, P., Cypriani, M.L., Jacquet, N., Brunerie, P., Souchon, I. (2011) Impact of swallowing on the dynamics of aroma release and perception during the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Chemical Senses, 36: 701-713
EU Commission (2019) Regulation (EU) 2019/787 of The European Parliament and of The Council of 17 April 2019 on the definition, description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks, the use of the names of spirit drinks in the presentation and labelling of other food. Official Journal of the European Union, L 130/1
Farah, J.S., Araujo, C.B., Melo, L. (2017) Analysis of yoghurts', whey-based beverages' and fermented milks' labels and differences on their sensory profiles and acceptance. International Dairy Journal, 68: 17-22
Ferrari, G., Lablanquie, O., Cantagrel, R., Ledauphin, J., Payot, T., Fournier, N., Guichard, E. (2004) Determination of Key Odorant Compounds in Freshly Distilled Cognac Using GC-O, GC-MS, and Sensory Evaluation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(18): 5670-5676
Fiches, G., Deleris, I., Saint-Eve, A., Passot, S., Brunerie, P., Souchon, I. (2014) Influence of the Nonvolatile Fraction on the Sensory Perception of 40% (v/v) Ethanol-Containing French Grape Brandies. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29(1): 56-63
Fiches, G., Saint, E.A., Jourdren, S., Déléris, I., Brunerie, P., Souchon, I. (2016) Temporality of perception during the consumption of French grape brandies with different aging times in relation with aroma compound release. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 31(1): 31-40
Glenk, K., Hall, C., Liebe, U., Meyerhoff, J. (2012) Preferences of Scotch malt whisky consumers for changes in pesticide use and origin of barley. Food Policy, 37(6): 719-731
Granja-Soares, J., Roque, R., Cabrita, M.J., Anjos, O., Belchior, A.P., Caldeira, I., Canas, S. (2020) Effect of innovative technology using staves and micro-oxygenation on the odorant and sensory profile of aged wine spirit. Food Chemistry, 333: 127450
Haase, J., Wiedmann, K. (2018) The sensory perception item set (SPI): An exploratory effort to develop a holistic scale for sensory marketing. Psychology & Marketing, 35(10): 727-739
Halliday, D.J. (2004) Tradition and innovation in the Scotch whisky industry. u: Bryce J.H., Stewart G.G. [ur.] Distilled spirits: Tradition and innovation, Nottingham: Nottingham University Press, 1-12
Heymann, H., Ebeler, S.E. (2016) Sensory and Instrumental Evaluation of Alcoholic Beverages. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press
Holt, H.E., Francis, I.L., Field, J., Herderich, M.J., Iland, P.G. (2008) Relationships between wine phenolic composition and wine sensory properties for Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.). Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 14(3): 162-176
Hultén, B. (2015) Sensory marketing: Theoretical and empirical grounds. London: Routledge
Ickes, C.M., Cadwallader, K.R. (2017) Effects of Ethanol on Flavor Perception in Alcoholic Beverages. Chemosensory Perception, 10(4): 119-134
Kellershohn, J. (2018) Alcoholic Beverages: Technology and Next-Generation Marketing. u: Panda S., Shetty P. [ur.] Innovations in Technologies for Fermented Food and Beverage Industries, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 105-120
King, E.S., Dunn, R.L., Heymann, H. (2013) The influence of alcohol on the sensory perception of red wines. Food Quality and Preference, 28(1): 235-243
King, E.S., Heymann, H. (2014) The Effect of Reduced Alcohol on the Sensory Profiles and Consumer Preferences of White Wine. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29(1): 33-42
Kostić-Stanković, M., Cvijović, J. (2017) The influence of the country of brand origin on purchasing decisions: The attitudes of Serbian consumers. u: ECIN 2017: International Economics and Management Conference, Belgrade, 177-184
Krishna, A. (2012) An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(3): 332-351
Lawless, H.T., Heymann, H. (2010) Sensory evaluation of food: Principles and practices. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Le, B.E., Atanasova, B., Langlois, D., Etievant, P., Thomas-Danguin, T. (2007) Impact of ethanol on the perception of wine odorant mixtures. Food Quality and Preference, 18, 901-908
Le, F.A., Jourdes, M., Teissedre, P.L. (2015) Polysaccharides and lignin from oak wood used in cooperage: Composition, interest, assays: A review. Carbohydrate Research, 417 (19), 94-102
Lee, K.M., Paterson, A., Piggott, J.R., Richardson, G.D. (2000) Perception of Whisky Flavour Reference Compounds by Scottish Distillers. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 106(4): 203-208
Lee, K.M., Paterson, A., Piggott, J.R., Richardson, G.D. (2001) Origins of Flavour in Whiskies and a Revised Flavour Wheel: A Review. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 107(5): 287-313
Louw, L., Lambrechts, M.G. (2012) Grape-based brandies: Production, sensory properties and sensory evaluation. u: Piggot J. [ur.] Alcoholic beverages: Sensory evaluation and consumer research, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 281-298
Lurton, L., Ferrari, G., Snakkers, G. (2012) Cognac: Production and aromatic characteristics. u: J. Piggott [ur.] Alcoholic beverages: Sensory evaluation and consumer research, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 242-266
Maharjan, R. (2019) A Conceptual Discourse on Consumer's Preference of Brandy. Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 1(2): 296-307
Marchal, A., Génin, E., Waffo-Téguo, P., Bibès, A., da Costa, G., Mérillon, J., Dubourdieu, D. (2015) Development of an analytical methodology using Fourier transform mass spectrometry to discover new structural analogs of wine natural sweeteners. Analytica Chimica Acta, 853: 425-434
Marchal, A., Waffo-Téguo, P., Génin, E., Mérillon, J., Dubourdieu, D. (2011) Identification of New Natural Sweet Compounds in Wine Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography-Gustatometry and Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 83(24): 9629-9637
Monteiro, M.J.P., Costa, A.I.A., Fliedel, G., Cissé, M., Bechoff, A., Pallet, D., Tomlins, K., Pintado, M.M.E. (2017) Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes. Food Chemistry, 225: 202-212
Mosedale, J.R., Puech, J.L.L. (1998) Wood maturation of distilled beverages. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 9(3): 95-101
Mosedale, J.R., Puech, J.L.L. (2003) Wines, Spirits, and Other Beverages. u: Caballero B. [ur.] Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, London: Academic Press, BARRELS |, (pp. 393-403). 2nd Ed
Pecić, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Tešević, V., Nikićević, N., Nikšić, M. (2011) The sensory properties of special brandy with G. lucidum. u: International Congress of food technologists and biotechnologists (7th), Opatija, Croatia, Proceeding, 83-86
Pecić, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Leskošek-Čukalović, I., Nikšić, M., Vukosavljević, P., Nikićević, N. (2012) Antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of special herb brandy. u: Central European Congress on Food (6th), 23-26. May, Novi Sad, Serbia, Proceedings, 1371-1375
Pecić, S. (2015) Uticaj plodosnog tela gljive Ganoderma lucidum na hemiski sastav i senzorna svojstva specijalnih rakija. Univerzitet u Beogradu-Poljoprivredni fakultet
Pecić, S., Nikićević, N., Veljović, M., Jadranin, M., Tešević, V., Belović, M., Nikšić, M. (2016) The influence of extraction parameters on physicochemical properties of special grain brandies with Ganoderma lucidum. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly / CICEQ, 22(2): 181-189
Pecić, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Leskošek-Čukalović, I., Jadranin, M., Tešević, V., Nikšić, M., Nikićević, N. (2012) Effect of maturation conditions on sensory and antioxidant properties of old Serbian plum brandies. European Food Research and Technology, 235(3): 479-487
Pierguidi, L., Spinelli, S., Dinnella, C., Prescott, J., Monteleone, E. (2020) Sensory acceptability and personality traits both determine which contexts are preferred for consumption of alcoholic cocktails. Food Quality and Preference, 85: 103978
Pierguidi, L., Spinelli, S., Dinnella, C., Prescott, J., Monteleone, E. (2019) Individual differences in perceived complexity are associated with different affective responses to alcoholic cocktails. Food Quality and Preference, 76: 47-59
Piggott, J.R., Sheen, M.R., Apostolidou, S.G. (1990) Consumers' perceptions of whiskies and other alcoholic beverages. Food Quality and Preference, 2(3): 177-185
Piggott, J.R., Macleodjohn, S. (2010) Sensory quality control of distilled beverages. u: Kilcast D. [ur.] Sensory analysis for food and beverage quality control: A Practical guide, Elsevier, 262-275
Podstawski, R., Wesołowska, E., Choszcz, D., Markowski, P., Klimczak, J. (2019) Drinking behaviours and alcohol preferences of female and male students at a Polish university in 2000-2016. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 26(3): 280-286
Poisson, L., Schieberle, P. (2008) Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an American bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56: 5820-5826
Power, A.C., Néill, C.N., Geoghegan, S., Currivan, S., Deasy, M., Cozzolino, D. (2020) A brief history of whisky adulteration and the role of spectroscopy combined with chemometrics in the detection of modern whisky fraud. Beverages, 6, 2020, 49
Qian, M.C., Hughes, P., Cadwallader, K. (2019) Overview of Distilled Spirits. u: Guthrie B., Beauchampm J.D., Buettner A., Toth S., Qian M.C. [ur.] Sex, smoke, and spirits: The role of chemistry (ACS Symposium Series), Washington: American Chemical Society, 1321: 125-144
Rajić, T., Cvijović, J., Nikolić, I. (2018) Modelling the determinants of customer loyalty in the context of consumer goods: Evidence from an emerging economy. u: Mirovye naučnotehnologičeskie tendencii social'no-èkonomičeskogo razvitiâ APK i sel'skih territorij: Meždunarodnaâ naučno-praktičeskaâ konferenciâ, posvâŝennaâ 75letiû okončaniâ Stalingradskoj bitvy, Volgograd, 169-176
Ramsey, I., Ross, C., Ford, R., Fisk, I., Yang, Q., Gomez-Lopez, J., Hort, J. (2018) Using a combined temporal approach to evaluate the influence of ethanol concentration on liking and sensory attributes of lager beer. Food Quality and Preference, 68: 292-303
Raz, C., Piper, D., Haller, R., Nicod, H., Dusart, N., Giboreau, A. (2008) From sensory marketing to sensory design: How to drive formulation using consumers' input?. Food Quality and Preference, 19(8): 719-726
Redondo, N., Gómez-Martínez, S., Marcos, A. (2014) Sensory attributes of soft drinks and their influence on consumers' preferences. Food & Function, 5(8): 1686
Roullier-Gall, C., Signoret, J., Coelho, C., Hemmler, D., Kajdan, M., Lucio, M., Schäfer, B., Gougeon, R.D., Schmitt-Kopplin, P. (2020) Influence of regionality and maturation time on the chemical fingerprint of whisky. Food Chemistry, 323: 126748
Rozin, P., Hormes, J.M. (2010) Psychology and Sensory Marketing, With a Focus on Food. u: Krishna A. [ur.] Sensory marketing: Research on the sensuality of products, Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Group-Routledge, 333-352
Samant, S.S., Chapko, M.J., Seo, H. (2017) Predicting consumer liking and preference based on emotional responses and sensory perception: A study with basic taste solutions. Food Research International, 100(1): 325-334
Schwarz, M., Rodríguez-Dodero, C.M., Jurado, S.M., Puertas, B., Barroso, C.G., Guillén, D.A. (2020) Analytical Characterization and Sensory Analysis of Distillates of Different Varieties of Grapes Aged by an Accelerated Method. Foods, 9(3): 277
Śliwińska, M., Wiśniewska, P., Dymerski, T., Wardencki, W., Namieśnik, J. (2015) The flavour of fruit spirits and fruit liqueurs: A review. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 30(3): 197-207
Smailagić, A., Veljović, S., Gašić, U., Dabić-Zagorac, D., Stanković, M., Radotić, K., Natić, M. (2019) Phenolic profile, chromatic parameters and fluorescence of different woods used in Balkan cooperage. Industrial Crops and Products, 132: 156-167
Smailagić, A., Stanković, D.M., Vranješ-Đurić, S., Veljović, S., Dabić-Zagorac, D., Manojlović, D., Natić, M. (2021) Influence of extraction time, solvent and wood specie on experimentally aged spirits: A simple tool to differentiate wood species used in cooperage. Food Chemistry, 346, 128896
Song, L., Wei, Y., Bergiel, B.J. (2018) Cognac consumption: A comparative study on American and Chinese consumers. Wine Economics and Policy, 7(1): 24-34
Spence, S., Wan, X. (2015) Beverage perception and consumption: The influence of the container on the perception of the contents. Food Quality and Preference, 39: 131-140
Spinelli, S., Jaeger, S.R. (2019) What do we know about the sensory drivers of emotions in foods and beverages?. Current Opinion in Food Science, 27: 82-89
Statista (2020) Alcoholic beverages. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from https://www.statista.com/markets/415/topic/464/alcoholic-beverages
Tešević, V., Nikićević, N., Jovanović, A., Đoković, D., Vujisić, Lj., Vučković, I., Bonić, M. (2005) Volatile components from old plum brandies. Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 43, br. 4, str. 367-372
TradeMap (2020) Retrieved December 15, 2020, from https://www.trademap.org/ AdvancedProductSearch
Tsakiris, A., Kallithraka, S., Kourkoutas, Y. (2014) Grape brandy production, composition and sensory evaluation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(3): 404-414
Veljović, S., Tomić, N., Belović, M., Nikićević, N., Vukosavljević, P., Nikšić, M., Tešević, V. (2019) Volatile composition, colour, and sensory quality of spirit-based beverages enriched with medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum and herbal extract. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 57 (3), 408-417
Veljović, S., Krstić, J. (2020) Elaborating on the potential for mushroom-based product market expansion: Consumers' attitudes and purchasing intentions. u: Singh J., Meshram V., Gupta M. [ur.] Bioactive natural products in drug discovery, Singapore: Springer, 643-663
Veljović, S. (2016) Mogućnost korišćenja gljiva i lekovitog bilja u proizvodnji jakih alkoholnih pića. Beograd: Ekonomski institut
Veljović, S., Nikićević, N., Nikšić, M. (2019) Medicinal Fungus Ganoderma lucidum as Raw Material for Alcohol Beverage Production. u: Grumezescu A.H., Holban A.M. [ur.] Alcoholic Beverages: The Science of Beverages, Cambridge, MA, United States: Woodhead Publishing, 7: 161-197
Veljović, S., Veljović, M., Despotović, S., Ivković, B., Leskošek-Čukalović, I., Nikšić, M., Nikićević, N. (2014) Uticaj plodonosnog tela gljive Ganoderma lucidum na antioksidativni kapacitet lozovih rakija. Hrana i ishrana, vol. 55, br. 2, str. 43-47
Viriot, C., Scalbert, A., Lapierre, C., Moutounets, M. (1993) Ellagitannins and lignins in aging of spirits in oak barrels?. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41(11): 1872-1879
Vukmirović, V., Kostić-Stanković, M., Vasilić, S. (2018) Sales improvement strategies in Serbian food industry. u: Međunarodna konferencija Inovacije i preduzetništvo - pokretači razvoja i zapošljavanja, Banja Luka: Ekonomski fakultet, pp. 54-68
Wang, Q.J., Mielby, L.A., Thybo, A.K., Bertelsen, A.S., Kidmose, U., Spence, C., Byrne, D.V. (2019) Sweeter together: Assessing the combined influence of product-related and contextual factors on perceived sweetness of fruit beverages. Journal of Sensory Study, 34(3): 12492
Wang, Q.J., Mielby, L.A., Junge, J.Y., Bertelsen, A.S., Kidmose, U., Spence, C., Byrne, D.V. (2019) The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Sensory Factors in Sweetness Perception of Food and Beverages: A Review. Foods, 8(6): 211
Winstel, D., Marchal, A. (2019) Lignans in Spirits: Chemical Diversity, Quantification, and Sensory Impact of (±)-Lyoniresinol. Molecules, 24(1): 117
Wiśniewska, P., Śliwińska, M., Dymerski, T., Wardencki, W., Namieśnik, J. (2016) The analysis of raw spirits: A review of methodology. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 122(1): 5-10
Zasimova, L., Kolosnitsyna, M. (2020) Exploring the relationship between drinking preferences and recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russian regions in 2010-2016. International Journal of Drug Policy, 82: 102810
Zhang, B., Cai, J., Duan, C., Reeves, M.J., He, F. (2015) A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(12): 6978-7014
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.2298/JAS2103209K
primljen: 11.03.2021.
prihvaćen: 07.08.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 15.10.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0