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2011, vol. 27, br. 4, str. 1585-1594
Prinos i kvalitet senaže ozime grahorice (Vicia sativa L.) u zavisnosti od načina setve
Naučni institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad

e-adresadjura.karagic@ifvcns.ns.ac.rs
Projekat:
Povećanje tržišnog značaja krmnih biljaka oplemenjivanjem i optimizacijom tehnologije proizvodnje semena (MPNTR - 31024)

Sažetak
Ozima grahorica (Vicia sativa L.) vrlo je osetljiva na poleganje i zbog toga se seje u smeši sa strnim žitima koja služe kao potporni usev. Povećanjem učešća strnine u smeši sa grahoricom značajno se smanjuje poleganje useva, pozitivno se utiče na prinos krme ali je proizvedena senaža slabijeg kvaliteta. U cilju utvrđivanja optimalnog odnosa strnine i grahorice u travno-leguminoznoj smeši izvršena su četvorogodišnja (2006-2009.) ispitivanja prinosa i kvaliteta senaže ozime grahorice. Setvena norma grahorice iznosila je 120 kg ha-1, a pšenice 0, 15, 20, 25 i 30 kg ha-1. Oged je postavljen po randomiziranom blok sistemu u četiri ponavljanja, površina osnovne parcelice iznosila je 60 m2. Kosidba useva obavljena je u fazi formiranja mahuna. Pokošena masa sušena je na parceli do sadržaja vlage od 55%. Pokošena i prosušena masa smeštena je u silotrenč bez dodatka inokulanta. Nakon 45 dana fermentacije uzeti su uzorci senaže od po 400 g. Obavljena je standardna analiza osnovnih pokazatelja kvaliteta (sadržaj sirovih proteina, sirovih masti, sirove celuloze, pepela i BEM) i analiza po Van Soest-u (NDF, ADF i lignin). Prosečan prinos senaže iznosio je 15733 kg ha-1. Najmanji prinos ostvaren je na tretmanu bez pšenice, 12240 kg ha-1, a najveći na tretmanu sa 30 kg ha-1 pšenice, 18938 kg ha-1. Nisu utvrđene signifikantne razlike u prinosu senaže na tretmanima sa 15 i 20 kg ha-1 pšenice (14970 i 15366 kg ha-1). Prosečan sadržaj sirovih proteina iznosio je 21,44%, najveći je bio na tretmanu bez pšenice 25,18%, a najmanji na tretmanu sa 30 kg ha-1 pšenice 15,82%. Povećanjem učešća strnine u smeši sa grahoricom značajno se smanjuje poleganje useva, pozitivno se utiče na prinos krme ali je proizvedena senaža slabijeg kvaliteta. Pokazatelji kvaliteta kao što su sadržaj NDF, ukupno svarljivih nutrijenata (TDN), konzumiranje suve materije senaže (DMI) i relativna hranljiva vrednost (RFV) bili su najveći u čistom usevu grahorice, kao i na tretmanu sa najmanjom setvenom normom pšenice. Nisu utvrđene statistički značajne razlike između tretmana za sadržaj ADF, svarljivost suve materije (DDM) i NEL. Najpovoljniji odnos između prinosa i kvaliteta senaže, te najveći prinos sirovih proteina (1482 kg ha-1) ostvaren je mešavinom 120 kg ha-1 semena grahorice i 15 kg ha-1 semena pšenice, stoga ova kombinacija može da se preporuči proizvođačima za agroekološke uslove jugoistočne Evrope.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.2298/BAH1104585K
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 20.12.2011.